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Quantitative imaging of anti-phase domains by polarity sensitive orientation mapping using electron backscatter diffraction

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      Abstract

      Advanced structural characterisation techniques which are rapid to use, non-destructive and structurally definitive on the nanoscale are in demand, especially for a detailed understanding of extended-defects and their influence on the properties of materials. We have applied the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique in a scanning electron microscope to non-destructively characterise and quantify antiphase domains (APDs) in GaP thin films grown on different (001) Si substrates with different offcuts. We were able to image and quantify APDs by relating the asymmetrical intensity distributions observed in the EBSD patterns acquired experimentally and comparing the same with the dynamical electron diffraction simulations. Additionally mean angular error maps were also plotted using automated cross-correlation based approaches to image APDs. Samples grown on substrates with a 4° offcut from the [110] do not show any APDs, whereas samples grown on the exactly oriented substrates contain APDs. The procedures described in our work can be adopted for characterising a wide range of other material systems possessing non-centrosymmetric point groups.

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          High-resolution elastic strain measurement from electron backscatter diffraction patterns: new levels of sensitivity.

          In this paper, we demonstrate that the shift between similar features in two electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) patterns can be measured using cross-correlation based methods to +/- 0.05 pixels. For a scintillator screen positioned to capture the usual large solid angle employed in EBSD orientation mapping this shift corresponds to only approximately 8.5 x 10(-5)rad at the pattern centre. For wide-angled EBSD patterns, the variation in the entire strain and rotation tensor can be determined from single patterns. Repeated measurements of small rotations applied to a single-crystal sample, determined using the shifts at four widely separated parts of the EBSD patterns, showed a standard deviation of 1.3 x 10(-4) averaged over components of the displacement gradient tensor. Variations in strains and rotations were measured across the interface in a cross-sectioned Si1-x Gex epilayer on a Si substrate. Expansion of the epilayer close to the section surface is accommodated by tensile strains and lattice curvature that extend a considerable distance into the substrate. Smaller and more localised shear strains are observed close to the substrate-layer interface. EBSD provides an impressive and unique combination of high strain sensitivity, high spatial resolution and ease of use.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]ISNI 0000000121138138, GRID grid.11984.35, Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, ; Glasgow, G4 ONG UK
            [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8948, GRID grid.4991.5, Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, ; Oxford, OX1 3PH UK
            [3 ]ISNI 0000000108389418, GRID grid.5373.2, Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, Aalto University, ; FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
            [4 ]Bruker Nano GmbH, Am Studio 2D, 12489 Berlin, Germany
            [5 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0603 5458, GRID grid.71566.33, BAM, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, ; 12205 Berlin, Germany
            Contributors
            naresh.gunasekar@strath.ac.uk
            Journal
            Sci Rep
            Sci Rep
            Scientific Reports
            Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
            2045-2322
            7 September 2017
            7 September 2017
            2017
            : 7
            28883500
            5589861
            11187
            10.1038/s41598-017-11187-z
            © The Author(s) 2017

            Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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