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      Diagnostic and prognostic value of human prion detection in cerebrospinal fluid : CSF RT-QuIC Test

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          Evidence for the conformation of the pathologic isoform of the prion protein enciphering and propagating prion diversity.

          The fundamental event in prion diseases seems to be a conformational change in cellular prion protein (PrPC) whereby it is converted into the pathologic isoform PrPSc. In fatal familial insomnia (FFI), the protease-resistant fragment of PrPSc after deglycosylation has a size of 19 kilodaltons, whereas that from other inherited and sporadic prion diseases is 21 kilodaltons. Extracts from the brains of FFI patients transmitted disease to transgenic mice expressing a chimeric human-mouse PrP gene about 200 days after inoculation and induced formation of the 19-kilodalton PrPSc fragment, whereas extracts from the brains of familial and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients produced the 21-kilodalton PrPSc fragment in these mice. The results presented indicate that the conformation of PrPSc functions as a template in directing the formation of nascent PrPSc and suggest a mechanism to explain strains of prions where diversity is encrypted in the conformation of PrPSc.
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            Sporadic human prion diseases: molecular insights and diagnosis.

            Human prion diseases can be sporadic, inherited, or acquired by infection. Distinct clinical and pathological characteristics separate sporadic diseases into three phenotypes: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), fatal insomnia, and variably protease-sensitive prionopathy. CJD accounts for more than 90% of all cases of sporadic prion disease; it is commonly categorised into five subtypes that can be distinguished according to leading clinical signs, histological lesions, and molecular traits of the pathogenic prion protein. Three subtypes affect prominently cognitive functions whereas the other two impair cerebellar motor activities. An accurate and timely diagnosis depends on careful clinical examination and early performance and interpretation of diagnostic tests, including electroencephalography, quantitative assessment of the surrogate markers 14-3-3, tau, and of the prion protein in the CSF, and neuroimaging. The reliability of CSF tests is improved when these tests are interpreted alongside neuroimaging data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Ultrasensitive detection of scrapie prion protein using seeded conversion of recombinant prion protein.

              The scrapie prion protein isoform, PrPSc, is a prion-associated marker that seeds the conformational conversion and polymerization of normal protease-sensitive prion protein (PrP-sen). This seeding activity allows ultrasensitive detection of PrPSc using cyclical sonicated amplification (PMCA) reactions and brain homogenate as a source of PrP-sen. Here we describe a much faster seeded polymerization method (rPrP-PMCA) which detects >or=50 ag of hamster PrPSc (approximately 0.003 lethal dose) within 2-3 d. This technique uses recombinant hamster PrP-sen, which, unlike brain-derived PrP-sen, can be easily concentrated, mutated and synthetically tagged. We generated protease-resistant recombinant PrP fibrils that differed from spontaneously initiated fibrils in their proteolytic susceptibility and by their infrared spectra. This assay could discriminate between scrapie-infected and uninfected hamsters using 2-microl aliquots of cerebral spinal fluid. This method should facilitate the development of rapid, ultrasensitive prion assays and diagnostic tests, in addition to aiding fundamental studies of structure and mechanism of PrPSc formation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annals of Neurology
                Ann Neurol.
                Wiley-Blackwell
                03645134
                January 2017
                January 2017
                : 81
                : 1
                : 79-92
                Article
                10.1002/ana.24833
                5266667
                27893164
                2b4e500c-c39c-417c-9740-8a3be487dac9
                © 2017

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1

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