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      Serine Deficiency Exacerbates Inflammation and Oxidative Stress via Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in D-Galactose-Induced Aging Mice

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          Inflammation and oxidative stress play key roles in the process of aging and age-related diseases. Since serine availability plays important roles in the support of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defense system, we explored whether serine deficiency affects inflammatory and oxidative status in D-galactose-induced aging mice. Male mice were randomly assigned into four groups: mice fed a basal diet, mice fed a serine- and glycine-deficient (SGD) diet, mice injected with D-galactose and fed a basal diet, and mice injected with D-galactose and fed an SGD diet. The results showed that D-galactose resulted in oxidative and inflammatory responses, while serine deficiency alone showed no such effects. However, serine deficiency significantly exacerbated oxidative stress and inflammation in D-galactose-treated mice. The composition of fecal microbiota was affected by D-galactose injection, which was characterized by decreased microbiota diversity and downregulated ratio of Firmicutes/ Bacteroidetes, as well as decreased proportion of Clostridium XIVa. Furthermore, serine deficiency exacerbated these changes. Additionally, serine deficiency in combination with D-galactose injection significantly decreased fecal butyric acid content and gene expression of short-chain fatty acid transporters ( Slc16a3 and Slc16a7) and receptor ( Gpr109a) in the brain. Finally, serine deficiency exacerbated the decrease of expression of phosphorylated AMPK and the increase of expression of phosphorylated NF κB p65, which were caused by D-galactose injection. In conclusion, our results suggested that serine deficiency exacerbated inflammation and oxidative stress in D-galactose-induced aging mice. The involved mechanisms might be partially attributed to the changes in the microbiota-gut-brain axis affected by serine deficiency.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Oxidative stress, inflamm-aging and immunosenescence.

          Immunosenescence is characterized by a decreased ability of the immune system to respond to foreign antigens, as well as a decreased ability to maintain tolerance to self-antigens. This results in an increased susceptibility to infection and cancer and reduced responses to vaccination [1-5]. The mechanisms underlying immunosenescence comprise a series of cellular and molecular events involving alteration of several biochemical pathways and different cellular populations, and for the most part our understanding of these molecular mechanisms is still fragmentary. In this review we will focus on the process of senescence associated with oxidative stress, in particular how protein oxidation alters the functionality of immune cells and how oxidative stress contributes to a chronic inflammatory process often referred as inflamm-aging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            [Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a lipid peroxidation marker].

            Free radicals generate the lipid peroxidation process in an organism. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is one of the final products of polyunsaturated fatty acids peroxidation in the cells. An increase in free radicals causes overproduction of MDA. Malondialdehyde level is commonly known as a marker of oxidative stress and the antioxidant status in cancerous patients.
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              Fatty acid transport protein expression in human brain and potential role in fatty acid transport across human brain microvessel endothelial cells.

              The blood-brain barrier (BBB), formed by the brain capillary endothelial cells, provides a protective barrier between the systemic blood and the extracellular environment of the CNS. Passage of fatty acids from the blood to the brain may occur either by diffusion or by proteins that facilitate their transport. Currently several protein families have been implicated in fatty acid transport. The focus of the present study was to identify the fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) expressed in the brain microvessel endothelial cells and characterize their involvement in fatty acid transport across an in vitro BBB model. The major fatty acid transport proteins expressed in human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMEC), mouse capillaries and human grey matter were FATP-1, -4 and fatty acid binding protein 5 and fatty acid translocase/CD36. The passage of various radiolabeled fatty acids across confluent HBMEC monolayers was examined over a 30-min period in the presence of fatty acid free albumin in a 1 : 1 molar ratio. The apical to basolateral permeability of radiolabeled fatty acids was dependent upon both saturation and chain length of the fatty acid. Knockdown of various fatty acid transport proteins using siRNA significantly decreased radiolabeled fatty acid transport across the HBMEC monolayer. Our findings indicate that FATP-1 and FATP-4 are the predominant fatty acid transport proteins expressed in the BBB based on human and mouse expression studies. While transport studies in HBMEC monolayers support their involvement in fatty acid permeability, fatty acid translocase/CD36 also appears to play a prominent role in transport of fatty acids across HBMEC. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

                Author and article information

                Mediators Inflamm
                Mediators Inflamm
                Mediators of Inflammation
                2 March 2020
                : 2020
                1Institute of Quality Standard & Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100, China
                2Dalian Chengsan Husbandry Co., Ltd., Dalian, China
                3State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
                4Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125, China
                Author notes

                Guest Editor: Hongmei Jiang

                Copyright © 2020 Fengen Wang et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funded by: Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences
                Funded by: “Huxiang Young Talents Plan” Project of Hunan Province
                Award ID: 2019RS2046
                Research Article



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