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      Using Satellite-Based Spatiotemporal Resolved Air Temperature Exposure to Study the Association between Ambient Air Temperature and Birth Outcomes in Massachusetts


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          Studies looking at air temperature (Ta) and birth outcomes are rare.


          We investigated the association between birth outcomes and daily Ta during various prenatal exposure periods in Massachusetts (USA) using both traditional Ta stations and modeled addresses.


          We evaluated birth outcomes and average daily Ta during various prenatal exposure periods in Massachusetts (USA) using both traditional Ta stations and modeled address Ta. We used linear and logistic mixed models and accelerated failure time models to estimate associations between Ta and the following outcomes among live births > 22 weeks: term birth weight (≥ 37 weeks), low birth weight (LBW; < 2,500 g at term), gestational age, and preterm delivery (PT; < 37 weeks). Models were adjusted for individual-level socioeconomic status, traffic density, particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5), random intercept for census tract, and mother’s health.


          Predicted Ta during multiple time windows before birth was negatively associated with birth weight: Average birth weight was 16.7 g lower (95% CI: –29.7, –3.7) in association with an interquartile range increase (8.4°C) in Ta during the last trimester. Ta over the entire pregnancy was positively associated with PT [odds ratio (OR) = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.05] and LBW (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.13).


          Ta during pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight and shorter gestational age in our study population.


          Kloog I, Melly SJ, Coull BA, Nordio F, Schwartz JD. 2015. Using satellite-based spatiotemporal resolved air temperature exposure to study the association between ambient air temperature and birth outcomes in Massachusetts. Environ Health Perspect 123:1053–1058;  http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1308075

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          Recent reconstructions of Northern Hemisphere temperatures and climate forcing over the past 1000 years allow the warming of the 20th century to be placed within a historical context and various mechanisms of climate change to be tested. Comparisons of observations with simulations from an energy balance climate model indicate that as much as 41 to 64% of preanthropogenic (pre-1850) decadal-scale temperature variations was due to changes in solar irradiance and volcanism. Removal of the forced response from reconstructed temperature time series yields residuals that show similar variability to those of control runs of coupled models, thereby lending support to the models' value as estimates of low-frequency variability in the climate system. Removal of all forcing except greenhouse gases from the approximately 1000-year time series results in a residual with a very large late-20th-century warming that closely agrees with the response predicted from greenhouse gas forcing. The combination of a unique level of temperature increase in the late 20th century and improved constraints on the role of natural variability provides further evidence that the greenhouse effect has already established itself above the level of natural variability in the climate system. A 21st-century global warming projection far exceeds the natural variability of the past 1000 years and is greater than the best estimate of global temperature change for the last interglacial.
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            Misclassification of exposure is a well-recognized inherent limitation of epidemiologic studies of disease and the environment. For many agents of interest, exposures take place over time and in multiple locations; accurately estimating the relevant exposures for an individual participant in epidemiologic studies is often daunting, particularly within the limits set by feasibility, participant burden, and cost. Researchers have taken steps to deal with the consequences of measurement error by limiting the degree of error through a study's design, estimating the degree of error using a nested validation study, and by adjusting for measurement error in statistical analyses. In this paper, we address measurement error in observational studies of air pollution and health. Because measurement error may have substantial implications for interpreting epidemiologic studies on air pollution, particularly the time-series analyses, we developed a systematic conceptual formulation of the problem of measurement error in epidemiologic studies of air pollution and then considered the consequences within this formulation. When possible, we used available relevant data to make simple estimates of measurement error effects. This paper provides an overview of measurement errors in linear regression, distinguishing two extremes of a continuum-Berkson from classical type errors, and the univariate from the multivariate predictor case. We then propose one conceptual framework for the evaluation of measurement errors in the log-linear regression used for time-series studies of particulate air pollution and mortality and identify three main components of error. We present new simple analyses of data on exposures of particulate matter < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter from the Particle Total Exposure Assessment Methodology Study. Finally, we summarize open questions regarding measurement error and suggest the kind of additional data necessary to address them. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3
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              T-helper (Th) cells play a central role in modulating immune responses. The Th1/Th2 paradigm has now developed into the new Th1/Th2/Th17 paradigm. In addition to effector cells, Th cells are regulated by regulatory T (Treg) cells. Their capacity to produce cytokines is suppressed by immunoregulatory cytokines such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and interleukin (IL)-10 or by cell-to-cell interaction. Here, we will review the immunological environment in normal pregnancy and complicated pregnancy, such as implantation failure, abortion, preterm labor, and preeclampsia from the viewpoint of the new Th1/Th2/Th17 and Treg paradigms.

                Author and article information

                Environ Health Perspect
                Environ. Health Perspect
                Environmental Health Perspectives
                07 April 2015
                October 2015
                : 123
                : 10
                : 1053-1058
                [1 ]Department of Geography and Environmental Development, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
                [2 ]Exposure, Epidemiology and Risk Program, Department of Environmental Health, and
                [3 ]Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
                Author notes
                Address correspondence to I. Kloog, Department of Geography and Environmental Development, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O.B. 653, Beer Sheva, Israel. Telephone: 972-86428394. E-mail: ikloog@ 123456bgu.ac.il

                Publication of EHP lies in the public domain and is therefore without copyright. All text from EHP may be reprinted freely. Use of materials published in EHP should be acknowledged (for example, “Reproduced with permission from Environmental Health Perspectives”); pertinent reference information should be provided for the article from which the material was reproduced. Articles from EHP, especially the News section, may contain photographs or illustrations copyrighted by other commercial organizations or individuals that may not be used without obtaining prior approval from the holder of the copyright.

                Children's Health

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