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      A Single-Dose Study of Denosumab in Patients With Various Degrees of Renal Impairment

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          This 16-week study evaluated pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of denosumab in 55 subjects with renal function ranging from normal to dialysis-dependent kidney failure. Participants received a single 60-mg subcutaneous dose of denosumab. Kidney function groups were based on calculations using the Cockcroft-Gault equation and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance in place when the study was designed. Renal function did not have a significant effect on denosumab pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. These findings suggest denosumab dose adjustment based on glomerular filtration rate is not required. Rapid decreases in serum C-telopeptide in all groups were sustained throughout the study. The most common adverse events were hypocalcemia (15%), pain in extremity (15%), and nausea (11%). Most adverse events were mild to moderate in severity. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation was not initially required by the study protocol, but was added during the trial. No subject who received adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation became hypocalcemic. Seven subjects had nadir serum calcium concentrations between 7.5 and <8.0 mg/dL (1.9 and <2.0 mmol/L), and 5 subjects (4 with advanced renal disease) had nadir serum calcium <7.5 mg/dL (<1.9 mmol/L). Two subjects (1 symptomatic, 1 asymptomatic) were hospitalized for intravenous calcium gluconate treatment. At the recommended dose, denosumab is a useful therapeutic option for patients with impaired renal function. Supplementation of calcium and vitamin D is strongly recommended when patients initiate denosumab therapy, particularly in patients with reduced renal function. © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Prediction of creatinine clearance from serum creatinine.

          A formula has been developed to predict creatinine clearance (Ccr) from serum creatinine (Scr) in adult males: (see article)(15% less in females). Derivation included the relationship found between age and 24-hour creatinine excretion/kg in 249 patients aged 18-92. Values for Ccr were predicted by this formula and four other methods and the results compared with the means of two 24-hour Ccr's measured in 236 patients. The above formula gave a correlation coefficient between predicted and mean measured Ccr's of 0.83; on average, the difference predicted and mean measured values was no greater than that between paired clearances. Factors for age and body weight must be included for reasonable prediction.
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            Osteoclast differentiation factor is a ligand for osteoprotegerin/osteoclastogenesis-inhibitory factor and is identical to TRANCE/RANKL.

            Osteoclasts, the multinucleated cells that resorb bone, develop from hematopoietic cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Osteoclast-like cells (OCLs) are formed by coculturing spleen cells with osteoblasts or bone marrow stromal cells in the presence of bone-resorbing factors. The cell-to-cell interaction between osteoblasts/stromal cells and osteoclast progenitors is essential for OCL formation. Recently, we purified and molecularly cloned osteoclastogenesis-inhibitory factor (OCIF), which was identical to osteoprotegerin (OPG). OPG/OCIF is a secreted member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family and inhibits osteoclastogenesis by interrupting the cell-to-cell interaction. Here we report the expression cloning of a ligand for OPG/OCIF from a complementary DNA library of mouse stromal cells. The protein was found to be a member of the membrane-associated tumor necrosis factor ligand family and induced OCL formation from osteoclast progenitors. A genetically engineered soluble form containing the extracellular domain of the protein induced OCL formation from spleen cells in the absence of osteoblasts/stromal cells. OPG/OCIF abolished the OCL formation induced by the protein. Expression of its gene in osteoblasts/stromal cells was up-regulated by bone-resorbing factors. We conclude that the membrane-bound protein is osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF), a long-sought ligand mediating an essential signal to osteoclast progenitors for their differentiation into osteoclasts. ODF was found to be identical to TRANCE/RANKL, which enhances T-cell growth and dendritic-cell function. ODF seems to be an important regulator in not only osteoclastogenesis but also immune system.
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              A single-dose placebo-controlled study of AMG 162, a fully human monoclonal antibody to RANKL, in postmenopausal women.

              The safety and bone antiresorptive effect of a single subcutaneous dose of AMG 162, a human monoclonal antibody to RANKL, was investigated in 49 postmenopausal women. AMG 162 is a potent antiresorptive agent for diseases such as osteoporosis. RANKL is an essential osteoclastic differentiation and activation factor. The bone antiresorptive activity and safety of AMG 162, a fully human monoclonal antibody to RANKL, were evaluated in postmenopausal women in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, dose escalation study. Six cohorts of eight to nine women were randomly assigned to receive a single subcutaneous injection of either AMG 162 or placebo (3:1 ratio). AMG 162 doses were 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg. Subjects were followed up to 6 months in all cohorts and 9 months in the three highest dose cohorts. Second morning void urinary N-telopeptide/creatinine (NTX; Osteomark), serum NTX, and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP, Ostase) were assessed as bone turnover markers. Forty-nine women were enrolled. A single subcutaneous dose of AMG 162 resulted in a dose-dependent, rapid (within 12 h), profound (up to 84%), and sustained (up to 6 months) decrease in urinary NTX. At 6 months, there was a mean change from baseline of -81% in the 3.0 mg/kg AMG 162 group compared with -10% in the placebo group; serum NTX changes were -56% and 2%, respectively. BALP levels did not decrease remarkably until after 1 month, indicating that the effect of AMG 162 is primarily antiresorptive. Intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels increased up to approximately 3-fold after 4 days in the 3.0 mg/kg dose group, but returned toward baseline with follow-up. Albumin-adjusted serum calcium did not decrease >10% on average in any group, and no subject had values below 2 mmol/liter. AMG 162 was well tolerated. No related serious adverse events occurred. No clinically meaningful laboratory changes, other than those described above, were observed. In summary, a single subcutaneous dose of AMG 162 resulted in a dose-dependent rapid and sustained decrease from baseline in bone turnover and could be an effective and convenient treatment for osteoporosis.

                Author and article information

                J Bone Miner Res
                J. Bone Miner. Res
                Journal of Bone and Mineral Research
                Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company (Hoboken )
                July 2012
                28 March 2012
                : 27
                : 7
                : 1471-1479
                [1 ]Denver Nephrologists, PC, Clinical Research Division Denver, CO, USA
                [2 ]Michigan Bone and Mineral Clinic Detroit, MI, USA
                [3 ]Amgen Inc. Thousand Oaks, CA, USA
                Author notes
                Address correspondence to: Desmond Padhi, PharmD, One Amgen Center Drive, MS 38-3-A, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320, USA. E-mail: dpadhi@ 123456amgen.com

                Current Address: Liang Fang, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA.

                Re-use of this article is permitted in accordance with the Terms and Conditions set out at http://wileyonlinelibrary.com/onlineopen#OnlineOpen_Terms.

                Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research

                Re-use of this article is permitted in accordance with the Creative Commons Deed, Attribution 2.5, which does not permit commercial exploitation.

                Original Articles

                Human biology

                calcium, bone, pharmacokinetics, vitamin d, chronic kidney disease


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