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      High red blood cell composition in clots is associated with successful recanalization during intra-arterial thrombectomy

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          Abstract

          We evaluated the composition of individual clots retrieved during intra-arterial thrombectomy in relation to recanalization success, stroke subtype, and the presence of clot signs on initial brain images. We analyzed clot and interventional data from 145 retrieval trials performed for 37 patients (69.5±14.0 years, 20 men, large artery atherosclerosis, n = 7; cardioembolism, n = 22; undetermined etiology, n = 8) who had undergone intra-arterial thrombectomy. Rates of clot retrieval and successful recanalization (Arterial Occlusive Lesion score of 2–3) for separate retrieval trials were evaluated. The area occupied by red blood cell (RBC), fibrin/platelets, and white blood cell (WBC) was measured from digitized images of hematoxylin-eosin stained clots. Compositional differences were compared according to recanalization success, stroke subtype, and the presence of hyperdense clot sign on initial computed tomography and/or blooming artifact on magnetic resonance image. Of the 145 total retrieval trials (3.4±2.4 times per patient), clot was retrieved in 93 trials (64%), while recanalization was successful in 73 (50%). Fibrin/platelets (63%) occupied the greatest area in retrieved clots, followed by RBCs (33%) and WBCs (4%). Clots retrieved from successful recanalization exhibited higher RBC composition (37%) than those retrieved from non-recanalization trials (20%, p = 0.001). RBC composition was higher in cardioembolic stroke (38%) rather than large artery atherosclerosis (23%) and undetermined etiology (26%, p = 0.01). Clots exhibiting clot signs (40%) had higher RBC composition than those without clot signs (19%, p = 0.001). RBC-rich clots were associated with successful recanalization of intra-arterial thrombectomy, cardioembolic stroke, and the presence of clot-signs on initial brain images.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Classification of subtype of acute ischemic stroke. Definitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial. TOAST. Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment.

          The etiology of ischemic stroke affects prognosis, outcome, and management. Trials of therapies for patients with acute stroke should include measurements of responses as influenced by subtype of ischemic stroke. A system for categorization of subtypes of ischemic stroke mainly based on etiology has been developed for the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST). A classification of subtypes was prepared using clinical features and the results of ancillary diagnostic studies. "Possible" and "probable" diagnoses can be made based on the physician's certainty of diagnosis. The usefulness and interrater agreement of the classification were tested by two neurologists who had not participated in the writing of the criteria. The neurologists independently used the TOAST classification system in their bedside evaluation of 20 patients, first based only on clinical features and then after reviewing the results of diagnostic tests. The TOAST classification denotes five subtypes of ischemic stroke: 1) large-artery atherosclerosis, 2) cardioembolism, 3) small-vessel occlusion, 4) stroke of other determined etiology, and 5) stroke of undetermined etiology. Using this rating system, interphysician agreement was very high. The two physicians disagreed in only one patient. They were both able to reach a specific etiologic diagnosis in 11 patients, whereas the cause of stroke was not determined in nine. The TOAST stroke subtype classification system is easy to use and has good interobserver agreement. This system should allow investigators to report responses to treatment among important subgroups of patients with ischemic stroke. Clinical trials testing treatments for acute ischemic stroke should include similar methods to diagnose subtypes of stroke.
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            A randomized trial of intraarterial treatment for acute ischemic stroke.

            In patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by a proximal intracranial arterial occlusion, intraarterial treatment is highly effective for emergency revascularization. However, proof of a beneficial effect on functional outcome is lacking. We randomly assigned eligible patients to either intraarterial treatment plus usual care or usual care alone. Eligible patients had a proximal arterial occlusion in the anterior cerebral circulation that was confirmed on vessel imaging and that could be treated intraarterially within 6 hours after symptom onset. The primary outcome was the modified Rankin scale score at 90 days; this categorical scale measures functional outcome, with scores ranging from 0 (no symptoms) to 6 (death). The treatment effect was estimated with ordinal logistic regression as a common odds ratio, adjusted for prespecified prognostic factors. The adjusted common odds ratio measured the likelihood that intraarterial treatment would lead to lower modified Rankin scores, as compared with usual care alone (shift analysis). We enrolled 500 patients at 16 medical centers in The Netherlands (233 assigned to intraarterial treatment and 267 to usual care alone). The mean age was 65 years (range, 23 to 96), and 445 patients (89.0%) were treated with intravenous alteplase before randomization. Retrievable stents were used in 190 of the 233 patients (81.5%) assigned to intraarterial treatment. The adjusted common odds ratio was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 2.30). There was an absolute difference of 13.5 percentage points (95% CI, 5.9 to 21.2) in the rate of functional independence (modified Rankin score, 0 to 2) in favor of the intervention (32.6% vs. 19.1%). There were no significant differences in mortality or the occurrence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. In patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by a proximal intracranial occlusion of the anterior circulation, intraarterial treatment administered within 6 hours after stroke onset was effective and safe. (Funded by the Dutch Heart Foundation and others; MR CLEAN Netherlands Trial Registry number, NTR1804, and Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN10888758.).
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              Randomized Assessment of Rapid Endovascular Treatment of Ischemic Stroke

              Among patients with a proximal vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation, 60 to 80% of patients die within 90 days after stroke onset or do not regain functional independence despite alteplase treatment. We evaluated rapid endovascular treatment in addition to standard care in patients with acute ischemic stroke with a small infarct core, a proximal intracranial arterial occlusion, and moderate-to-good collateral circulation. We randomly assigned participants to receive standard care (control group) or standard care plus endovascular treatment with the use of available thrombectomy devices (intervention group). Patients with a proximal intracranial occlusion in the anterior circulation were included up to 12 hours after symptom onset. Patients with a large infarct core or poor collateral circulation on computed tomography (CT) and CT angiography were excluded. Workflow times were measured against predetermined targets. The primary outcome was the score on the modified Rankin scale (range, 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]) at 90 days. A proportional odds model was used to calculate the common odds ratio as a measure of the likelihood that the intervention would lead to lower scores on the modified Rankin scale than would control care (shift analysis). The trial was stopped early because of efficacy. At 22 centers worldwide, 316 participants were enrolled, of whom 238 received intravenous alteplase (120 in the intervention group and 118 in the control group). In the intervention group, the median time from study CT of the head to first reperfusion was 84 minutes. The rate of functional independence (90-day modified Rankin score of 0 to 2) was increased with the intervention (53.0%, vs. 29.3% in the control group; P<0.001). The primary outcome favored the intervention (common odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 3.8; P<0.001), and the intervention was associated with reduced mortality (10.4%, vs. 19.0% in the control group; P=0.04). Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in 3.6% of participants in intervention group and 2.7% of participants in control group (P=0.75). Among patients with acute ischemic stroke with a proximal vessel occlusion, a small infarct core, and moderate-to-good collateral circulation, rapid endovascular treatment improved functional outcomes and reduced mortality. (Funded by Covidien and others; ESCAPE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01778335.).
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: SoftwareRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: Resources
                Role: InvestigationRole: Project administrationRole: Resources
                Role: MethodologyRole: SoftwareRole: ValidationRole: Visualization
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                21 May 2018
                2018
                : 13
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Daejeon-Chungnam Regional Cerebrovascular Center, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon, South Korea
                [2 ] Department of Neurology, Hospital and School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, South Korea
                [3 ] Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital and School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, South Korea
                [4 ] Department of Pathology, Hospital and School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, South Korea
                Maastricht University Medical Center, NETHERLANDS
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-17-43410
                10.1371/journal.pone.0197492
                5962078
                29782513
                © 2018 Shin et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Pages: 13
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002462, Chungnam National University;
                Award Recipient :
                The present study was supported by a Research Fund of Chungnam National University 2016 (for Jei Kim, MD).
                Categories
                Research Article
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Critical Care and Emergency Medicine
                Reperfusion
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Neurology
                Cerebrovascular Diseases
                Stroke
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