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      Changes in noise levels in the city of Madrid during COVID-19 lockdown in 2020a)

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          Abstract

          The lockdown that Madrid has suffered during the months of March to June 2020 to try to control and minimize the spread of COVID-19 has significantly altered the acoustic environment of the city. The absence of vehicles and people on the streets has led to a noise reduction captured by the monitoring network of the City of Madrid. In this article, an analysis has been carried out to describe the reduction in noise pollution that has occurred and to analyze the changes in the temporal patterns of noise, which are strongly correlated with the adaptation of the population's activity and behavior to the new circumstances. The reduction in the sound level ranged from 4 to 6 dBA for the indicators L d, L e, and L n, and this is connected to a significant variation in the daily time patterns, especially during weekends, when the activity started earlier in the morning and lasted longer at midday, decreasing significantly in the afternoon.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Indirect effects of COVID-19 on the environment

          This research aims to show the positive and negative indirect effects of COVID-19 on the environment, particularly in the most affected countries such as China, USA, Italy, and Spain. Our research shows that there is a significant association between contingency measures and improvement in air quality, clean beaches and environmental noise reduction. On the other hand, there are also negative secondary aspects such as the reduction in recycling and the increase in waste, further endangering the contamination of physical spaces (water and land), in addition to air. Global economic activity is expected to return in the coming months in most countries (even if slowly), so decreasing GHG concentrations during a short period is not a sustainable way to clean up our environment.
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            COVID-19 lockdown effects on air quality by NO2 in the cities of Barcelona and Madrid (Spain)

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              COVID-19 pandemic persuaded lockdown effects on environment over stone quarrying and crushing areas

              Stone quarrying and crushing spits huge stone dust to the environment and causes threats to ecosystem components as well as human health. Imposing emergency lockdown to stop infection of COVID 19 virus on 24.03.2020 in India has created economic crisis but it has facilitated environment to restore its quality. Global scale study has already proved the qualitative improvement of air quality but its possible impact at regional level is not investigated yet. Middle catchment of Dwarka river basin of Eastern India is well known for stone quarrying and crushing and therefore the region is highly polluted. The present study has attempted to explore the impact of forced lockdown on environmental components like Particulate matter (PM) 10, Land surface temperature (LST), river water quality, noise using image and field derived data in pre and during lockdown periods. Result clearly exhibits that Maximum PM10 concentration was 189 to 278 μg/m3 in pre lockdown period and it now ranges from 50 to 60 μg/m3 after 18 days of the commencement of lockdown in selected four stone crushing clusters. LST is reduced by 3–5 °C, noise level is dropped to <65dBA which was above 85dBA in stone crusher dominated areas in pre lockdown period. Adjacent river water is qualitatively improved due to stoppage of dust release to the river. For instance, total dissolve solid (TDS) level in river water adjacent to crushing unit is attenuated by almost two times. When entire world is worried about the appropriate policies for abating environmental pollution, this emergency lockdown shows an absolute way i.e. pollution source management may restore environment and ecosystem with very rapid rate.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                J Acoust Soc Am
                J Acoust Soc Am
                JASMAN
                The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
                Acoustical Society of America
                0001-4966
                1520-8524
                September 2020
                25 September 2020
                : 148
                : 3
                : 1748-1755
                Affiliations
                Instrumentation and Applied Acoustics Research Group, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid , Madrid, c/ Mercator 3, 28031 Madrid, Spain
                Author notes
                [b)]

                Electronic mail: casensio@ 123456i2a2.upm.es

                Article
                10.0002008 JASA-05828
                10.1121/10.0002008
                7857494
                33003833
                © 2020 Acoustical Society of America.

                0001-4966/2020/148(3)/1748/8/ $30.00

                All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Page count
                Pages: 8
                Categories
                Special Issue on Covid-19 Pandemic Acoustic Effects
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