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      Penalties for Success: Reactions to Women Who Succeed at Male Gender-Typed Tasks.

      Journal of Applied Psychology

      American Psychological Association (APA)

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          Description and Prescription: How Gender Stereotypes Prevent Women's Ascent Up the Organizational Ladder

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            Prescriptive Gender Stereotypes and Backlash Toward Agentic Women

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              Self-promotion as a risk factor for women: the costs and benefits of counterstereotypical impression management.

              Three experiments tested and extended recent theory regarding motivational influences on impression formation (S. T. Fiske & S. L. Neuberg, 1990; J. L. Hilton & J. M. Darley, 1991) in the context of an impression management dilemma that women face: Self-promotion may be instrumental for managing a competent impression, yet women who self-promote may suffer social reprisals for violating gender prescriptions to be modest. Experiment 1 investigated the influence of perceivers' goals on processes that inhibit stereotypical thinking, and reactions to counterstereotypical behavior. Experiments 2-3 extended these findings by including male targets. For female targets, self-promotion led to higher competence ratings but incurred social attraction and hireability costs unless perceivers were outcome-dependent males. For male targets, self-effacement decreased competence and hireability ratings, though its effects on social attraction were inconsistent.
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                Journal
                10.1037/0021-9010.89.3.416
                15161402

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