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      A history of study and new records of terrestrial enchytraeids (Annelida, Clitellata, Enchytraeidae) from the Russian Far East

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          Abstract

          A list of terrestrial enchytraeids of the Russian Far East is compiled based on literature and extensive field data collected by the authors in 2019. A database has been created consisting of geographic coordinates, habitat type, species, and data source. For some species collected by the authors, barcoding using COI, 16s, and 12s rRNA genes has been performed. In total, there are at least 62 species of enchytraeids belonging to 12 genera. Seven species ( Achaeta macroampullacea , Cognettia sphagnetorum , Enchytraeus dichaetus , Fridericia cusanica , Globulidrilus riparius , Marionina southerni , Mesenchytraeus gigachaetus ) are reported in the Russian Far East for the first time. Cognettia sphagnetorum and F. cusanica are most probably introduced. Taxonomic and biogeographical remarks on some of the species found and differences from the original descriptions are provided. Some of the specimens may be undescribed species, but this requires a more in-depth examination. The Russian Far East, especially its southeastern part, is of great interest as a possible location for new species of enchytraeids.

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          Most cited references 37

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          TOPALi v2: a rich graphical interface for evolutionary analyses of multiple alignments on HPC clusters and multi-core desktops

          Summary: TOPALi v2 simplifies and automates the use of several methods for the evolutionary analysis of multiple sequence alignments. Jobs are submitted from a Java graphical user interface as TOPALi web services to either run remotely on high-performance computing clusters or locally (with multiple cores supported). Methods available include model selection and phylogenetic tree estimation using the Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood (ML) approaches, in addition to recombination detection methods. The optimal substitution model can be selected for protein or nucleic acid (standard, or protein-coding using a codon position model) data using accurate statistical criteria derived from ML co-estimation of the tree and the substitution model. Phylogenetic software available includes PhyML, RAxML and MrBayes. Availability: Freely downloadable from http://www.topali.org for Windows, Mac OS X, Linux and Solaris. Contact: iain.milne@scri.ac.uk
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            Molecular phylogeny of naidid worms (Annelida: Clitellata) based on cytochrome oxidase I

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              The use of earthworms in ecological soil classification and assessment concepts.

              Without doubt, earthworms are the most important soil invertebrates in most soils worldwide, in terms of both biomass and activity. Several species are even considered to be ecosystem engineers. Earthworms are also known to influence soil structure, soil chemistry, and, in particular, processes like organic matter decomposition. In addition, standardized sampling methods are available and their taxonomy is well known (even the first PC-aided keys have been developed). For these reasons, earthworms were recognized as a part of ecological classification and assessment schemes early on. However, due to the relatively small number at many sites, they have to be part of a battery approach. By use of examples from The Netherlands (biological indicator of soil quality) and Germany (soil biological site classification), the practicability of the use of earthworms is demonstrated in determining the influence of different anthropogenic land use forms. In these cases, the structure of the earthworm community, as well as their abundance and biomass, were used as endpoints.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                05 August 2020
                : 955
                : 79-96
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, 33 Leninskij prosp., Moscow, 119071, Russia Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow Russia
                [2 ] Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992, Russia Lomonosov Moscow State University Moscow Russia
                [3 ] Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, 30–1 Bolshoy Boulevard, Moscow, 121205, Russia Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology Moscow Russia
                [4 ] Federal Research and Clinical Center of Physical-Chemical Medicine, Federal Medical Biological Agency, 1a Malaya Pirogovskaya, Moscow, 119435, Russia Federal Medical Biological Agency Moscow Russia
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Konstantin B. Gongalsky ( gongalsky@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: Samuel James

                Article
                53106
                10.3897/zookeys.955.53106
                7423782
                Maksim I. Degtyarev, Iurii M. Lebedev, Ksenia G. Kuznetsova, Konstantin B. Gongalsky

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                Russian Geographic Society (grant # 13-2019-R)
                Categories
                Research Article
                Clitellata
                Enchytraeidae
                Species Inventories
                Far East
                Russia

                Animal science & Zoology

                16s rrna, coi, potworms, soil fauna, 12s rrna, biodiversity

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