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      A novel sequestrate species from Mexico: Aroramyces guanajuatensis sp. nov. (Hysterangiaceae, Hysterangiales)

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          Knowledge of sequestrate Hysterangiaceae fungi in Mexico is very limited. In the present study, a new member of the family, Aroramyces guanajuatensis sp. nov., is described. This speciesis closely related to A. balanosporus , but differs from the latter in possessing a tomentose peridium 165–240 µm thick, with occasional large terminal hyphae up to 170 µm, a variable mesocutis (isodiametric to angular), and distinct bright yellowish subcutis. In contrast, A. balanosporus possesses a fibrillose peridial surface with shorter hyphae, a peridium 200–450 µm thick, and a mainly hyaline isodiametric mesocutis with a slightly wider subcutis. The phylogenetic analysis of the LSU gene separated A. guanajuatensis from A. balanosporus with a Bayesian posterior probability (PP) = 1. This is the third Aroramyces species described for the American continent.

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          Most cited references 9

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          MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees.

          The program MRBAYES performs Bayesian inference of phylogeny using a variant of Markov chain Monte Carlo. MRBAYES, including the source code, documentation, sample data files, and an executable, is available at http://brahms.biology.rochester.edu/software.html.
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            Bayesian phylogenetic model selection using reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo.

            A common problem in molecular phylogenetics is choosing a model of DNA substitution that does a good job of explaining the DNA sequence alignment without introducing superfluous parameters. A number of methods have been used to choose among a small set of candidate substitution models, such as the likelihood ratio test, the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), and Bayes factors. Current implementations of any of these criteria suffer from the limitation that only a small set of models are examined, or that the test does not allow easy comparison of non-nested models. In this article, we expand the pool of candidate substitution models to include all possible time-reversible models. This set includes seven models that have already been described. We show how Bayes factors can be calculated for these models using reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo, and apply the method to 16 DNA sequence alignments. For each data set, we compare the model with the best Bayes factor to the best models chosen using AIC and BIC. We find that the best model under any of these criteria is not necessarily the most complicated one; models with an intermediate number of substitution types typically do best. Moreover, almost all of the models that are chosen as best do not constrain a transition rate to be the same as a transversion rate, suggesting that it is the transition/transversion rate bias that plays the largest role in determining which models are selected. Importantly, the reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm described here allows estimation of phylogeny (and other phylogenetic model parameters) to be performed while accounting for uncertainty in the model of DNA substitution.
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              Ectomycorrhizal community structure in a xeric Quercus woodland based on rDNA sequence analysis of sporocarps and pooled roots.

              Quercus woodlands are key components of California's wild landscapes, yet little is known about ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi in these ecosystems. We examined the EM community associated with Quercus douglasii using sporocarp surveys and by pooling EM roots and subjecting them to DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) screening and DNA sequencing. Ectomycorrhizal root symbionts were sampled four times in 2003-04. During this time, the below-ground community structure was relatively stable; we found no evidence of taxa adapted to winter or spring conditions and only one species varied widely in occurrence between years. The EM community from sporocarps and roots was diverse (161 species), rich in Ascomycota (46 species), and dominated by fungi with cryptic sporocarps. This included a large number of resupinate and hypogeous taxa, many of which were detected both above- and below-ground.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                11 December 2019
                : 61
                : 27-37
                [1 ] Instituto Tecnológico de Cd. Victoria, Av. Portes Gil 1301 Pte. C.P. 87010, Cd. Victoria Tam, Mexico
                [2 ] Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 132, Lanhei Road, Kunming 650201, China
                [3 ] Instituto de Ecología, A.C., Carretera antigua a Coatepec # 351, El Haya, C.P. 91070, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico
                [4 ] Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Profesor de Asignatura B, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Ciudad Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán, 04510, Ciudad de México, Mexico
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Gonzalo Guevara-Guerrero ( guevaragg@ 123456hotmail.com )

                Academic editor: Marc Stadler

                Rafael Peña-Ramírez, Zai-Wei Ge, Rigoberto Gaitán-Hernández, César Ramiro Martínez-González, Gonzalo Guevara-Guerrero

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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