Hypertension is a typical modern lifestyle-related disease that is closely associated with the development of cardiovascular disorders. Elevation of angiotensin II (ANG II) is one of several critical factors for hypertension and heart failure; however, the mechanisms underlying the ANG II-mediated pathogenesis are still poorly understood. Here, we show that ANG II-mediated cardiac fibrosis, but not hypertrophy, is regulated by interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), which until now has been exclusively studied in the innate immune system. In a ANG II-infusion mouse model (3.0 mg/kg/d), we compared IRF3-deficient mice (Irf3(-/-)/Bcl2l12(-/-)) with matched wild-type (WT) controls. The development of cardiac fibrosis [3.95 ± 0.62% (WT) vs. 1.41 ± 0.46% (Irf3(-/-)/Bcl2l12(-/-)); P<0.01] and accompanied reduction in left ventricle end-diastolic dimension [2.89 ± 0.10 mm (WT) vs. 3.51 ± 0.15 mm (Irf3(-/-)/Bcl2l12(-/-)); P=0.012] are strongly suppressed in Irf3(-/-)/Bcl2l12(-/-) mice, whereas hypertrophy still develops. Further, we provide evidence for the activation of IRF3 by ANG II signaling in mouse cardiac fibroblasts. Unlike the activation of IRF3 by innate immune receptors, IRF3 activation by ANG II is unique in that it is activated through the canonical ERK signaling pathway. Thus, our present study reveals a hitherto unrecognized function of IRF3 in cardiac remodeling, providing new insight into the progression of hypertension-induced cardiac pathogenesis.