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Labor-effective manipulation of marine and beetle luciferases for bioassays.

Protein Engineering, Design and Selection

Sequence Alignment, methods, Protein Engineering, Molecular Sequence Data, Models, Molecular, Mice, Luminescent Measurements, metabolism, chemistry, Luciferases, Biological Assay, enzymology, Beetles, Aquatic Organisms, Animals, Amino Acid Sequence

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      Engineering of luciferases with designed properties and functionalities collects great interest in bioassays. However, such an engineering including mutagenesis accompanies great consumption of time-and-labor. Here, I review an empirical approach to efficiently manipulate marine and beetle luciferases for bioassays, where a putative active site of luciferases is initially assigned with an in silico analysis, prior to the practical engineering, e.g. a hydrophilicity search reveals a characteristic hydrophilic region of luciferases as an engineering target. Amino acids in the hydrophilic region are recommended for a mutagenesis target to generate superluminescent variants of marine luciferases with prolonged bioluminescence. Empirical data suggest that a consecutive fragmentation to the assigned hydrophilic site greatly reduces time-and-labors on construction of single-chain probes. This review summarizes how to relieve the efforts for fabricating single-chain probes and potent variants of luciferases with excellent optical properties.

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