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      Detraining Effect on Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Autonomic Function and Functional Outcomes in Patients With Parkinson's Disease After Respiratory Muscle Training: An 18-Month Follow-Up Study

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          Abstract

          Background: The effect of 3-month respiratory muscle training (RMT) on pulmonary and autonomic function and functional outcomes has been demonstrated in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD); however, there is a paucity of information on the durability of the training effect. In this study, we monitored the pulmonary and cardiovascular autonomic function and clinical severity scales until 18 months after the cessation of RMT to elucidate the detraining effect after RMT.

          Methods: All patients with PD receiving RMT were assessed with clinical severity scales as well as pulmonary and autonomic function tests at four different stages (baseline on enrollment, immediately after 3 months of RMT, and 6 and 18 months after cessation of RMT). A control group of PD patients who did not receive RMT was also recruited for comparison. Pulmonary function parameters, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), and maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), were assessed. Cardiovascular autonomic function was assessed using measures including heart rate response to deep breathing (HRDB), Valsalva ratio, and baroreflex sensitivity. Clinical severity scores were also measured using the Hoehn and Yahr staging and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS).

          Results: The results showed significant improvements in MIP, MEP, HRDB, and UPDRS immediately after RMT. Despite some decay, the improvements in pulmonary function (MIP and MEP) and functional outcomes (UPDRS) remained significant until 6 months of detraining (9 months after enrollment). However, the improvement in cardiovascular autonomic function (HRDB) was reversed after 6 months of detraining.

          Conclusions: Based on these findings, we recommend that RMT may be repeated after at least 6 months after previous session (9 months after enrollment) for patients with PD to maintain optimal therapeutic effects.

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          Most cited references27

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          Parkinsonism: onset, progression, and mortality

          M Hoehn, M Yahr (1967)
          Neurology, 17(5), 427-427
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            Systematic review of levodopa dose equivalency reporting in Parkinson's disease.

            Interpretation of clinical trials comparing different drug regimens for Parkinson's disease (PD) is complicated by the different dose intensities used: higher doses of levodopa and, possibly, other drugs produce better symptomatic control but more late complications. To address this problem, conversion factors have been calculated for antiparkinsonian drugs that yield a total daily levodopa equivalent dose (LED). LED estimates vary, so we undertook a systematic review of studies reporting LEDs to provide standardized formulae. Electronic database and hand searching of references identified 56 primary reports of LED estimates. Data were extracted and the mean and modal LEDs calculated. This yielded a standardized LED for each drug, providing a useful tool to express dose intensity of different antiparkinsonian drug regimens on a single scale. Using these conversion formulae to report LEDs would improve the consistency of reporting and assist the interpretation of clinical trials comparing different PD medications. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society.
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              Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease: a clinico-pathological study of 100 cases.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Neurol
                Front Neurol
                Front. Neurol.
                Frontiers in Neurology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-2295
                21 October 2021
                2021
                : 12
                : 735847
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine , Kaohsiung, Taiwan
                [2] 2Department of Respiratory Therapy, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine , Kaohsiung, Taiwan
                [3] 3Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine , Kaohsiung, Taiwan
                [4] 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine , Kaohsiung, Taiwan
                [5] 5Center for Shockwave Medicine and Tissue Engineering, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine , Kaohsiung, Taiwan
                [6] 6Department of Biological Science, National Sun Yat-sen University , Kaohsiung, Taiwan
                [7] 7Department of Neurology, Xiamen Chang Gung Memorial Hospital , Xiamen, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Yih-Ru Wu, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan

                Reviewed by: Reza Daneshvar, Kashan University of Medical Science, Iran; Chien Tai Hong, Taipei Medical University, Taiwan

                This article was submitted to Movement Disorders, a section of the journal Frontiers in Neurology

                Article
                10.3389/fneur.2021.735847
                8566819
                2bf7d0b1-6ef9-4414-89de-16fc683f0324
                Copyright © 2021 Huang, Lai, Wu, Kuo, Cheng, Tsai, Kung, Chiang and Lu.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 03 July 2021
                : 20 September 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 27, Pages: 7, Words: 4877
                Funding
                Funded by: Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, doi 10.13039/501100004663;
                Award ID: MOST 107-2314-B-182A-046-MY2 and MOST 109-2314-B-182A-079-MY3
                Categories
                Neurology
                Original Research

                Neurology
                respiratory muscle training,detraining effect,pulmonary function,cardiovascular autonomic function,parkinson's disease

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