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Larvicidal and ovideterrent properties of neem oil and fractions against the filariasis vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): a bioactivity survey across production sites

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      Botanical insecticides, deterrents, and repellents in modern agriculture and an increasingly regulated world.

      Botanical insecticides have long been touted as attractive alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides for pest management because botanicals reputedly pose little threat to the environment or to human health. The body of scientific literature documenting bioactivity of plant derivatives to arthropod pests continues to expand, yet only a handful of botanicals are currently used in agriculture in the industrialized world, and there are few prospects for commercial development of new botanical products. Pyrethrum and neem are well established commercially, pesticides based on plant essential oils have recently entered the marketplace, and the use of rotenone appears to be waning. A number of plant substances have been considered for use as insect antifeedants or repellents, but apart from some natural mosquito repellents, little commercial success has ensued for plant substances that modify arthropod behavior. Several factors appear to limit the success of botanicals, most notably regulatory barriers and the availability of competing products (newer synthetics, fermentation products, microbials) that are cost-effective and relatively safe compared with their predecessors. In the context of agricultural pest management, botanical insecticides are best suited for use in organic food production in industrialized countries but can play a much greater role in the production and postharvest protection of food in developing countries.
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        Insecticide resistance in insect vectors of human disease.

        Insecticide resistance is an increasing problem in many insect vectors of disease. Our knowledge of the basic mechanisms underlying resistance to commonly used insecticides is well established. Molecular techniques have recently allowed us to start and dissect most of these mechanisms at the DNA level. The next major challenge will be to use this molecular understanding of resistance to develop novel strategies with which we can truly manage resistance. State-of-the-art information on resistance in insect vectors of disease is reviewed in this context.
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          Spread of the tiger: global risk of invasion by the mosquito Aedes albopictus.

          Aedes albopictus, commonly known as the Asian tiger mosquito, is currently the most invasive mosquito in the world. It is of medical importance due to its aggressive daytime human-biting behavior and ability to vector many viruses, including dengue, LaCrosse, and West Nile. Invasions into new areas of its potential range are often initiated through the transportation of eggs via the international trade in used tires. We use a genetic algorithm, Genetic Algorithm for Rule Set Production (GARP), to determine the ecological niche of Ae. albopictus and predict a global ecological risk map for the continued spread of the species. We combine this analysis with risk due to importation of tires from infested countries and their proximity to countries that have already been invaded to develop a list of countries most at risk for future introductions and establishments. Methods used here have potential for predicting risks of future invasions of vectors or pathogens.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Parasitology Research
            Parasitol Res
            Springer Nature
            0932-0113
            1432-1955
            January 2015
            October 21 2014
            : 114
            : 1
            : 227-236
            10.1007/s00436-014-4183-3
            © 2014
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