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      Contribution of Ekman pumping to the changes in properties and volume of the Eastern South Pacific Intermediate Water Translated title: Contribución del bombeo de Ekman a los cambios en las propiedades y volumen del Agua Intermedia del Pacífico Sur Oriental

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          Abstract

          ABSTRACT An update on the Eastern South Pacific Intermediate Water (ESPIW) distribution has been possible based on ARGO (Array for Real-Time Geostrophic Oceanography) data. This study comprised over 46,000 profiles obtained during 2007-2012 from an area between the western coast of South America and 150°W, and 5° and 40°S. This information was complemented with data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) P06 transects conducted in 1992 and 2010 at 32°30’S in the South Pacific Ocean. Based on a comparison of this update and data from 1990-2001, it was established that the ESPIW volume has increased by approximately 53%. Moreover, the area occupied by ESPIW in the 2010 WOCE P06 transect was 48% higher than in 1992. Ekman pumping velocity, calculated from the wind for the time and region of ESPIW formation, showed a significant increase in Ekman pumping between 2000 and 2012. The increase in Ekman pumping from 2000 onward could explain the observed changes in ESPIW distribution (the water mass had extended zonally) and properties (salinity showed a decrease of 0.1). These changes could be explained as the consequence of atmospheric climate variability over the interior ocean.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMEN Una actualización de la distribución del Agua Intermedia del Pacífico Sur Oriental (AIPSO) fue realizada con datos ARGO (Array for Real-Time Geostrophic Oceanography). Este estudio comprendió más de 46.000 perfiles obtenidos durante2007-2012 del área entre la costa occidental de Sudamérica y 150° O, y 5°S y 40°S. Esta información se complementó con datos de las secciones P06 del World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) realizadas en 1992 y 2010 en 32° 30’S en el Océano Pacífico Sur. Comparando ésta actualización y los datos de 1990-2001 se estableció que el volumen del AIPSO ha aumentado aproximadamente un 53%. Además, el área ocupada por AIPSO en el transecto WOCE P06 de 2010 fue 48% más grande que en 1992. La velocidad de bombeo Ekman, calculada a partir del viento para el tiempo y la región de la formación del AIPSO, mostró un aumento significativo en el bombeo de Ekman entre 2000 y 2012. El aumento del bombeo de Ekman desde el 2000 podría explicar los cambios observados en la distribución del AIPSO (la masa de agua se extendió zonalmente) y las propiedades (la salinidad disminuyó 0.1). Estos cambios podrían explicarse como la consecuencia de la variabilidad climática atmosférica sobre el océano interior.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Coefficients for sea surface wind stress, heat flux, and wind profiles as a function of wind speed and temperature

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            Global climate change and intensification of coastal ocean upwelling.

             A Bakun (1990)
            A mechanism exists whereby global greenhouse warning could, by intensifying the alongshore wind stress on the ocean surface, lead to acceleration of coastal upwelling. Evidence from several different regions suggests that the major coastal upwelling systems of the world have been growing in upwelling intensity as greenhouse gases have accumulated in the earth's atmosphere. Thus the cool foggy summer conditions that typify the coastlands of northern California and other similar upwelling regions might, under global warming, become even more pronounced. Effects of enhanced upwelling on the marine ecosystem are uncertain but potentially dramatic.
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              The Ventilated Thermocline

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                gayana
                Gayana (Concepción)
                Gayana (Concepc.)
                Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción (Concepción, , Chile )
                0717-652X
                0717-6538
                December 2017
                : 81
                : 2
                : 52-63
                Affiliations
                Valdivia Los Ríos orgnameUniversidad Austral de Chile orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias orgdiv2Instituto de Ciencias Marinas y Limnológicas Chile
                Concepción Bío-Bío orgnameUniversidad de Concepción orgdiv1Departamento de Oceanografía Chile
                Concepción Bío-Bío orgnameUniversidad de Concepción orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas Chile
                orgnameDirección Oceanografía Naval, Instituto Oceanográfico de la Armada Ecuador
                orgnameCentro FONDAP de Investigación en Dinámica de Ecosistemas Marinos de Altas Latitudes (IDEAL) Chile
                Bío-Bío orgnameUniversidad de Concepción orgdiv1Instituto Milenio de Oceanografía (IMO) Chile
                Article
                S0717-65382017000200052

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 35, Pages: 12
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