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      Augmented Contractile Response of Vascular Smooth Muscle in a Diabetic Mouse Model

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          The vasomotor properties of isolated aortae and mesenteric arteries of insulin-resistant ob/ob and 57CBL/6J mice were compared in organ bath studies. Vessels from ob/ob mice were more sensitive to phenylephrine. Pretreatment with L-NAME caused similar leftward shifts of the phenylephrine concentration response curves in diabetic and non-diabetic vessels. The ob/ob aortae contracted in response to phenylephrine with roughly twice the force while they were not stiffer than control aortae. L-NAME caused a greater percentage increase in maximal force in the control than in the ob/ob tissue. Denudation potentiated force in the control aortae, but not in the ob/ob aortae. Endothelium-dependent relaxation in the ob/ob aortae and mesenteric arteries was impaired as manifested by a decreased sensitivity and maximal relaxation to acetylcholine, while the aortic basal eNOS mRNA levels did not differ between the two strains. In addition, ob/ob aortae were less sensitive to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside. Inhibition of endogenous prostaglandin synthesis with indomethacin (10 µ M) partly normalized the contractile response of the ob/ob aortae and enhanced their endothelium-dependent relaxation. Neither blockade of endothelin-1 receptors (bosentan, 10 µ M) nor PKC inhibition (calphostin, 1 µ M) affected the contractile response to phenylephrine in the mouse aortae of either strain. In conclusion, vascular dysfunction in the aorta and mesenteric artery of ob/ob mice are due to increased smooth muscle contractility and impaired dilation but not to changes in elasticity of the vascular wall. Endothelium-produced prostaglandins contribute to the increased vasoconstriction.

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          A comparison of whole-genome shotgun-derived mouse chromosome 16 and the human genome.

          The high degree of similarity between the mouse and human genomes is demonstrated through analysis of the sequence of mouse chromosome 16 (Mmu 16), which was obtained as part of a whole-genome shotgun assembly of the mouse genome. The mouse genome is about 10% smaller than the human genome, owing to a lower repetitive DNA content. Comparison of the structure and protein-coding potential of Mmu 16 with that of the homologous segments of the human genome identifies regions of conserved synteny with human chromosomes (Hsa) 3, 8, 12, 16, 21, and 22. Gene content and order are highly conserved between Mmu 16 and the syntenic blocks of the human genome. Of the 731 predicted genes on Mmu 16, 509 align with orthologs on the corresponding portions of the human genome, 44 are likely paralogous to these genes, and 164 genes have homologs elsewhere in the human genome; there are 14 genes for which we could find no human counterpart.
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            Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase enhances mitogenic actions of insulin in endothelial cells.

            The concept of "selective insulin resistance" has emerged as a unifying hypothesis in attempts to reconcile the influence of insulin resistance with that of hyperinsulinemia in the pathogenesis of macrovascular complications of diabetes. To explore this hypothesis in endothelial cells, we designed a set of experiments to mimic the "typical metabolic insulin resistance" by blocking the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and exposing the cells to increasing concentrations of insulin ("compensatory hyperinsulinemia"). Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase with wortmannin blocked the ability of insulin to stimulate increased expression of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase, did not affect insulin-induced activation of MAP kinase, and increased the effects of insulin on prenylation of Ras and Rho proteins. At the same time, this experimental paradigm resulted in increased expression of vascular cellular adhesion molecules-1 and E-selectin, as well as increased rolling interactions of monocytes with endothelial cells. We conclude that inhibition of the metabolic branch of insulin signaling leads to an enhanced mitogenic action of insulin in endothelial cells.
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              Mechanisms of Increased Vascular Superoxide Production in Human Diabetes Mellitus


                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                December 2003
                29 January 2004
                : 40
                : 6
                : 520-530
                aiCAPTUR 4E Centre and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, bDepartments of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia and St.Paul’s Hospital, Vancouver, Canada
                75238 J Vasc Res 2003;40:520–530
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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                Figures: 8, Tables: 2, References: 48, Pages: 11
                Research Paper


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