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      State of the science and challenges of breeding landscape plants with ecological function

      review-article
      1 , * , 2 , 3
      Horticulture Research
      Nature Publishing Group

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          Abstract

          Exotic plants dominate esthetically-managed landscapes, which cover 30–40 million hectares in the United States alone. Recent ecological studies have found that landscaping with exotic plant species can reduce biodiversity on multiple trophic levels. To support biodiversity in urbanized areas, the increased use of native landscaping plants has been advocated by conservation groups and US federal and state agencies. A major challenge to scaling up the use of native species in landscaping is providing ornamental plants that are both ecologically functional and economically viable. Depending on ecological and economic constraints, accelerated breeding approaches could be applied to ornamental trait development in native plants. This review examines the impact of landscaping choices on biodiversity, the current status of breeding and selection of native ornamental plants, and the interdisciplinary research needed to scale up landscaping plants that can support native biodiversity.

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          Most cited references36

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          Identification of a functional transposon insertion in the maize domestication gene tb1.

          Genetic diversity created by transposable elements is an important source of functional variation upon which selection acts during evolution. Transposable elements are associated with adaptation to temperate climates in Drosophila, a SINE element is associated with the domestication of small dog breeds from the gray wolf and there is evidence that transposable elements were targets of selection during human evolution. Although the list of examples of transposable elements associated with host gene function continues to grow, proof that transposable elements are causative and not just correlated with functional variation is limited. Here we show that a transposable element (Hopscotch) inserted in a regulatory region of the maize domestication gene, teosinte branched1 (tb1), acts as an enhancer of gene expression and partially explains the increased apical dominance in maize compared to its progenitor, teosinte. Molecular dating indicates that the Hopscotch insertion predates maize domestication by at least 10,000 years, indicating that selection acted on standing variation rather than new mutation.
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            Comparative mapping and marker-assisted selection in Rosaceae fruit crops.

            The development of saturated linkage maps using transferable markers, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and micro-satellites has provided a foundation for fruit tree genetics and breeding. A Prunus reference map with 562 such markers is available, and a further set of 13 maps constructed with a subset of these markers has allowed genome comparison among seven Prunus diploid (x = 8) species (almond, peach, apricot, cherry, Prunus ferganensis, Prunus davidiana, and Prunus cerasifera); marker colinearity was the rule with all of them. Preliminary results of the comparison between apple and Prunus maps suggest a high level of synteny between these two genera. Conserved genomic regions have also been detected between Prunus and Arabidopsis. By using the data from different linkage maps anchored with the reference Prunus map, it has been possible to establish, in a general map, the position of 28 major genes affecting agronomic characters found in different species. Markers tightly linked to the major genes responsible for the expression of important traits (disease/pest resistances, fruit/nut quality, self-incompatibility, etc.) have been developed in apple and Prunus and are currently in use for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. Quantitative character dissection using linkage maps and candidate gene approaches has already started. Genomic tools such as the Prunus physical map, large EST collections in both Prunus and Malus, and the establishment of the map position of high numbers of ESTs are required for a better understanding of the Rosaceae genome and to foster additional research and applications on fruit tree genetics.
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              Artificial selection for determinate growth habit in soybean.

              Determinacy is an agronomically important trait associated with the domestication in soybean (Glycine max). Most soybean cultivars are classifiable into indeterminate and determinate growth habit, whereas Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of soybean, is indeterminate. Indeterminate (Dt1/Dt1) and determinate (dt1/dt1) genotypes, when mated, produce progeny that segregate in a monogenic pattern. Here, we show evidence that Dt1 is a homolog (designated as GmTfl1) of Arabidopsis terminal flower 1 (TFL1), a regulatory gene encoding a signaling protein of shoot meristems. The transition from indeterminate to determinate phenotypes in soybean is associated with independent human selections of four distinct single-nucleotide substitutions in the GmTfl1 gene, each of which led to a single amino acid change. Genetic diversity of a minicore collection of Chinese soybean landraces assessed by simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and allelic variation at the GmTfl1 locus suggest that human selection for determinacy took place at early stages of landrace radiation. The GmTfl1 allele introduced into a determinate-type (tfl1/tfl1) Arabidopsis mutants fully restored the wild-type (TFL1/TFL1) phenotype, but the Gmtfl1 allele in tfl1/tfl1 mutants did not result in apparent phenotypic change. These observations indicate that GmTfl1 complements the functions of TFL1 in Arabidopsis. However, the GmTfl1 homeolog, despite its more recent divergence from GmTfl1 than from Arabidopsis TFL1, appears to be sub- or neo-functionalized, as revealed by the differential expression of the two genes at multiple plant developmental stages and by allelic analysis at both loci.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Hortic Res
                Hortic Res
                Horticulture Research
                Nature Publishing Group
                2052-7276
                28 January 2015
                2015
                : 2
                : 14069
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Horticulture Department, University of Georgia , Athens, GA 30602, USA
                [2 ]Daniel B Warnell School of Forestry & Natural Resources, University of Georgia , Athens, GA 30602, USA
                [3 ]Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Georgia , Athens, GA 30602, USA
                Author notes
                Article
                hortres201469
                10.1038/hortres.2014.69
                4596282
                26504560
                2c13040f-e3d1-4f33-9e6f-5165df3898da
                Copyright © 2015 Nanjing Agricultural University

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

                History
                : 17 November 2014
                : 19 December 2014
                : 20 December 2014
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