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      N-Acetylcysteine Ameliorates Amphotericin-Induced Nephropathy in Rats

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          Background: Amphotericin B may cause acute reduction in renal function. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has a renoprotective activity in several nephrotoxic renal insults, but its effect on amphotericin-induced renal failure has not been investigated yet. Methods: Acute renal failure was induced in 30 Sprague-Dawley rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of amphotericin B (50 mg/kg). NAC (10 mg/kg) in isotonic saline or isotonic saline alone were administered daily for 4 days, starting 1 day before the amphotericin B injection. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was assessed using 99m-technetium diethylene triaminepentaacetic acid. Before and following amphotericin B administration, a 24-hour urine collection was performed for sodium, potassium and magnesium determination. The kidneys were preserved for pathologic examination. Results: Amphotericin B induced a significant decrease of GFR in both groups. Four days after amphotericin injection the GFR in the NAC-treated group was significantly higher than in the control group (0.62 ± 0.20 vs. 0.46 ± 0.14 ml/min, p = 0.042). Histologic signs of acute tubular necrosis were attenuated in the NAC-treated group. There were no significant differences between the groups in sodium, potassium and magnesium urine excretion after amphotericin injection. Conclusions: NAC treatment exerted a renoprotective effect on deterioration of GFR in a rat model of amphotericin-induced renal failure. No functional protection on tubular function, as obviated by similar polyuria and urine losses of potassium and magnesium in both groups, was observed.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Apparent hydroxyl radical production by peroxynitrite: implications for endothelial injury from nitric oxide and superoxide.

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            Improvement by acetylcysteine of hemodynamics and oxygen transport in fulminant hepatic failure.

            When administered early after an overdose of acetaminophen, intravenous acetylcysteine prevents hepatic necrosis by replenishing reduced stores of glutathione. How acetylcysteine improves the survival of patients with established liver damage induced by acetaminophen, however, is unknown. This study was undertaken to determine whether the beneficial effect of acetylcysteine under such circumstances could be due to enhancement of oxygen delivery and consumption. We studied the effect of acetylcysteine on systemic hemodynamics and oxygen transport in 12 patients with acetaminophen-induced fulminant hepatic failure and 8 patients with acute liver failure from other causes. The acetylcysteine was given in a dose of 150 mg per kilogram of body weight in 250 ml of 5 percent dextrose over a period of 15 minutes and then in a dose of 50 mg per kilogram in 500 ml of 5 percent dextrose over a period of 4 hours; measurements were made before treatment began and after 30 minutes of the regimen. In the patients with acetaminophen-induced liver failure, the infusion of acetylcysteine resulted in an increase in mean oxygen delivery from 856 to 975 ml per minute per square meter of body-surface area (P = 0.0036), due to an increase in the cardiac index from 5.6 to 6.7 liters per minute per square meter (P = 0.0021). Mean arterial pressure rose from 88 to 95 mm Hg (P = 0.0054) despite a decrease in systemic vascular resistance from 1296 to 1113 dyn.sec.cm-5 per square meter (P = 0.027). There was an increase in oxygen consumption from 127 to 184 ml per minute per square meter (P = 0.0007) associated with an increase in the oxygen-extraction ratio from 16 to 21 percent (P = 0.022). The effects in the patients with acute liver failure from other causes were similar. The increase in oxygen delivery and consumption in response to acetylcysteine may account for its beneficial effect on survival in patients with fulminant hepatic failure induced by acetaminophen.
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              The effect of N-acetylcysteine on renal function, nitric oxide, and oxidative stress after angiography.

              Renal failure induced by radiographic contrast agents is a known complication of coronary angiography, especially among patients with chronic renal failure. Recently, treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been shown to have a protective effect but the mechanisms are unknown. We examined the hypothesis that NAC protected against contrast-induced renal impairment through effects on nitric oxide metabolism and oxidative stress. Patients with a serum creatinine concentration above 10(6) micromol/L undergoing coronary angiography were randomly assigned to receive either NAC 1 g (N= 24) or placebo (N= 29) twice daily 24 hours before and after angiography with 0.45% saline hydration in a double-blind study. Creatinine clearance was calculated and urinary nitric oxide and F2-isoprostane excretion were measured at baseline, 24 and 96 hours after angiography. Treatment with NAC significantly improved the effect of contrast media on creatinine clearance, and maximal beneficial effect was observed 24 hours after angiography. Creatinine clearance (mL/min) was 59.5 +/- 4.4, 64.7 +/- 5.8, and 58.7 + 3.9 at baseline, 24, and 96 hours after angiography in the NAC group, respectively, and 65.2 +/- 3.2, 51.5 +/- 3.7, and 53.6 +/- 3.9 in the placebo group, respectively (P < 0.0001). NAC treatment prevented the reduction in urinary nitric oxide after angiography. The urinary nitric oxide/creatinine ratio (micromol/mg) was 0.0058 +/- 0.0004, 0.0057 +/- 0.0004, and 0.0052 +/- 0.0004 at baseline, 24, and 96 hours after angiography in NAC group, respectively, and 0.0057 +/- 0.0007, 0.0031 +/- 0.0005, and 0.0039 +/- 0.0005 in the placebo group, respectively (P= 0.013). NAC had no significant effect on urinary F2-isoprostanes. NAC treatment has renoprotective effect in patients with mild chronic renal failure undergoing coronary angiography that may be mediated in part by an increase in nitric oxide production.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Physiol
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                January 2005
                27 December 2004
                : 99
                : 1
                : p23-p27
                aNephrology Division and bDepartment of Internal Medicine A, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center (affiliated to Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University), Zerifin, and cDepartment of Pathology, Soroka Medical Center, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Faculty of Health Sciences, Beer Sheva, Israel
                81799 Nephron Physiol 2005;99:p23–p27
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 32, Pages: 1
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/81799
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