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      Dietary Fat and Sugar in Promoting Cancer Development and Progression

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      Annual Review of Cancer Biology

      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          The uncontrolled cellular growth that characterizes tumor formation requires a constant delivery of nutrients. Since the 1970s, researchers have wondered if the supply of nutrients from the diet could impact tumor development. Numerous studies have assessed the impact of dietary components, specifically sugar and fat, to increased cancer risk. For the most part, data from these trials have been inconclusive; however, this does not indicate that dietary factors do not contribute to cancer progression. Rather, the dietary contribution may be dependent on tumor, patient, and context, making it difficult to detect in the setting of large trials. In this review, we combine data from prospective cohort trials with mechanistic studies in mice to argue that fat and sugar can play a role in tumorigenesis and disease progression. We find that certain tumors may respond directly to dietary sugar (colorectal and endometrial cancers) and fat (prostate cancer) or indirectly to the obese state (breast cancer).

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          Visceral fat adipokine secretion is associated with systemic inflammation in obese humans.

          Although excess visceral fat is associated with noninfectious inflammation, it is not clear whether visceral fat is simply associated with or actually causes metabolic disease in humans. To evaluate the hypothesis that visceral fat promotes systemic inflammation by secreting inflammatory adipokines into the portal circulation that drains visceral fat, we determined adipokine arteriovenous concentration differences across visceral fat, by obtaining portal vein and radial artery blood samples, in 25 extremely obese subjects (mean +/- SD BMI 54.7 +/- 12.6 kg/m(2)) during gastric bypass surgery at Barnes-Jewish Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri. Mean plasma interleukin (IL)-6 concentration was approximately 50% greater in the portal vein than in the radial artery in obese subjects (P = 0.007). Portal vein IL-6 concentration correlated directly with systemic C-reactive protein concentrations (r = 0.544, P = 0.005). Mean plasma leptin concentration was approximately 20% lower in the portal vein than in the radial artery in obese subjects (P = 0.0002). Plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resistin, macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, and adiponectin concentrations were similar in the portal vein and radial artery in obese subjects. These data suggest that visceral fat is an important site for IL-6 secretion and provide a potential mechanistic link between visceral fat and systemic inflammation in people with abdominal obesity.
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            Adipose tissue and adipocytes support tumorigenesis and metastasis.

            Adipose tissue influences tumor development in two major ways. First, obese individuals have a higher risk of developing certain cancers (endometrial, esophageal, and renal cell cancer). However, the risk of developing other cancers (melanoma, rectal, and ovarian) is not altered by body mass. In obesity, hypertrophied adipose tissue depots are characterized by a state of low grade inflammation. In this activated state, adipocytes and inflammatory cells secrete adipokines and cytokines which are known to promote tumor development. In addition, the adipocyte mediated conversion of androgens to estrogen specifically contributes to the development of endometrial cancer, which shows the greatest relative risk (6.3-fold) increase between lean and obese individuals. Second, many tumor types (gastric, breast, colon, renal, and ovarian) grow in the anatomical vicinity of adipose tissue. During their interaction with cancer cells, adipocytes dedifferentiate into pre-adipocytes or are reprogrammed into cancer-associated adipocytes (CAA). CAA secrete adipokines which stimulate the adhesion, migration, and invasion of tumor cells. Cancer cells and CAA also engage in a dynamic exchange of metabolites. Specifically, CAA release fatty acids through lipolysis which are then transferred to cancer cells and used for energy production through β-oxidation. The abundant availability of lipids from adipocytes in the tumor microenvironment, supports tumor progression and uncontrolled growth. Given that adipocytes are a major source of adipokines and energy for the cancer cell, understanding the mechanisms of metabolic symbiosis between cancer cells and adipocytes, should reveal new therapeutic possibilities. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Lipid Metabolism in Cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Cancer Biology
                Annu. Rev. Cancer Biol.
                Annual Reviews
                2472-3428
                2472-3428
                March 04 2019
                March 04 2019
                : 3
                : 1
                : 255-273
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Meyer Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA;, ,
                [2 ]Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA
                Article
                10.1146/annurev-cancerbio-030518-055855
                © 2019

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