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      Hypercalcemia Associated with Extramammary Paget’s Disease

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          Hypercalcemia of malignancy occurs in up to one third of patients at some point during the course of their advanced stage. The majority of them is caused by humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy due to systemic secretion of parathyroid hormone–related protein (PTHrP) by tumor cells. Extramammary Paget’s disease is a slow-growing cutaneous malignancy commonly limited to the epidermis of the anogenital region, but rarely becomes invasive and metastatic to distant sites. Herein, we report a 70-year-old male patient with metastatic extramammary Paget’s disease. He consulted our hospital with altered consciousness and tumor in his genital area. Physical examination revealed erythematous plaque with a tumor on the scrotum and perineum. It was diagnosed as extramammary Paget’s disease (multiple liver metastases and multiple lymph node metastases by skin biopsy and image examination). Increases in serum-corrected calcium and PTHrP-intact levels (15.3 mg/dL and 66.1 pg/L, respectively) were confirmed. PTHrP immunohistochemistry showed positive staining in the tumor cells. We diagnosed humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. We treated hypercalcemia with saline, furosemide, zoledronic acid, and elcatonin. Regarding the local control of the tumor, 30 Gy/10 Fr electron beam therapy was performed. However, treatment with zoledronic acid was only temporally effective to correct hypercalcemia, and an increased serum calcium level developed again. Concurrently, the liver metastases were rapidly enlarged, and his general condition gradually deteriorated. The patient died on day 55. When patients with extramammary Paget’s disease show unconsciousness, serum calcium level should be measured and PTHrP-producing tumor distinguished.

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          Clinical practice. Hypercalcemia associated with cancer.

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            Hypercalcemia of Malignancy: An Update on Pathogenesis and Management

            Hypercalcemia of malignancy is a common finding typically found in patients with advanced stage cancers. We aimed to provide an updated review on the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management of malignancy-related hypercalcemia. We searched PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science for original articles, case reports, and case series articles focused on hypercalcemia of malignancy published from 1950 to December 2014. Hypercalcemia of malignancy usually presents with markedly elevated calcium levels and therefore, usually severely symptomatic. Several major mechanisms are responsible for the development of hypercalcemia of malignancy including parathyroid hormone-related peptide-mediated humoral hypercalcemia, osteolytic metastases-related hypercalcemia, 1,25 Vitamin D-mediated hypercalcemia, and parathyroid hormone-mediated hypercalcemia in patients with parathyroid carcinoma and extra parathyroid cancers. Diagnosis should include the history and physical examination as well as measurement of the above mediators of hypercalcemia. Management includes hydration, calcitonin, bisphosphonates, denosumab, and in certain patients, prednisone and cinacalcet. Patients with advanced underlying kidney disease and refractory severe hypercalcemia should be considered for hemodialysis. Hematology or oncology and palliative care specialists should be involved early to guide the options of cancer targeted therapies and help the patients and their closed ones with the discussion of comfort-oriented care.
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              Metastatic Extramammary Paget’s Disease: Pathogenesis and Novel Therapeutic Approach

              Extramammary Paget’s disease (EMPD) is a rare, slow-growing, cutaneous adenocarcinoma that usually originates in the anogenital area and axillae outside the mammary glands. EMPD mostly progresses slowly and is often diagnosed as carcinoma in situ; however, upon becoming invasive, it promptly and frequently metastasizes to regional lymph nodes, leading to subsequent distant metastasis. To date, several chemotherapy regimens have been used to treat metastatic EMPD; however, they present limited effect and patients with distant metastasis exhibit a poor prognosis. Recently, basic and translational investigative research has elucidated factors and molecular mechanisms underlying the promotion of metastasis, which can lead to targeted therapy-based emerging treatment strategies. Here, we aim to discuss current therapies and their limitations; advancements in illustrating mechanisms promoting invasion, migration, and proliferation of EMPD tumor cells; and future therapeutic approaches for metastatic EMPD that may enhance clinical outcomes.

                Author and article information

                Case Reports in Ophthalmology
                S. Karger AG
                September - December 2020
                30 September 2020
                : 13
                : 3
                : 1209-1214
                aDepartment of Dermatology, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Japan
                bDepartment of Nephrology/Hypertension, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Japan
                cDepartment of Radiation Oncology, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Japan
                Author notes
                *Ryo Tanaka, Kawasaki Medical School Department of Dermatology, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki, Okayama 701-0192 (Japan), ryot@med.kawasaki-m.ac.jp
                510442 PMC7590784 Case Rep Oncol 2020;13:1209–1214
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, Pages: 6
                Case Report


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