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      In-Hospital Blood Pressure Variability: A Novel Prognostic Marker of Renal Function Decline and Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease


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          Introduction: Several measures of blood pressure (BP) variability have been associated with kidney disease and cardiovascular events. Although BP is routinely measured during hospitalization in daily practice, the prognostic impact of in-hospital BP and its variability are uncertain. Methods: A total of 226 participants who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for stable coronary artery disease (CAD) were included. BP was measured by trained nurses during the 4-day hospitalization for PCI. BP variability was assessed by standard deviation (SD) and coefficient variation of systolic BP. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated at baseline and follow-up (≥6 months). The cardiovascular end point was defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, acute coronary syndrome, stroke, heart failure hospitalization, and any coronary revascularization. Results: In-hospital BP was measured 9.5 ± 0.8 times. During a median follow-up period of 1.7 years, mean eGFR change was −1.7 mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup> per year, and 35 (15.5%) participants met the cardiovascular end point. Mean systolic BP and SD were negatively correlated with eGFR change. In the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, SD of systolic BP predicted the cardiovascular end point (AUC 0.63, best cutoff value 14.2 mm Hg, p = 0.003). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a significantly higher incidence of the cardiovascular end point in patients with SD of systolic BP ≥14.2 mm Hg compared to their counterpart ( p = 0.003). A multivariable analysis showed SD of systolic BP as an independent predictor for the cardiovascular end point. When assessed with coefficient variation, BP variability was similarly related to eGFR change and clinical outcomes. Conclusion: Greater in-hospital BP variability was associated with renal function decline and cardiovascular events in patients with stable CAD.

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          Most cited references28

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          A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

          The Lancet, 380(9859), 2224-2260
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            2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8).

            Hypertension is the most common condition seen in primary care and leads to myocardial infarction, stroke, renal failure, and death if not detected early and treated appropriately. Patients want to be assured that blood pressure (BP) treatment will reduce their disease burden, while clinicians want guidance on hypertension management using the best scientific evidence. This report takes a rigorous, evidence-based approach to recommend treatment thresholds, goals, and medications in the management of hypertension in adults. Evidence was drawn from randomized controlled trials, which represent the gold standard for determining efficacy and effectiveness. Evidence quality and recommendations were graded based on their effect on important outcomes. There is strong evidence to support treating hypertensive persons aged 60 years or older to a BP goal of less than 150/90 mm Hg and hypertensive persons 30 through 59 years of age to a diastolic goal of less than 90 mm Hg; however, there is insufficient evidence in hypertensive persons younger than 60 years for a systolic goal, or in those younger than 30 years for a diastolic goal, so the panel recommends a BP of less than 140/90 mm Hg for those groups based on expert opinion. The same thresholds and goals are recommended for hypertensive adults with diabetes or nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) as for the general hypertensive population younger than 60 years. There is moderate evidence to support initiating drug treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin receptor blocker, calcium channel blocker, or thiazide-type diuretic in the nonblack hypertensive population, including those with diabetes. In the black hypertensive population, including those with diabetes, a calcium channel blocker or thiazide-type diuretic is recommended as initial therapy. There is moderate evidence to support initial or add-on antihypertensive therapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker in persons with CKD to improve kidney outcomes. Although this guideline provides evidence-based recommendations for the management of high BP and should meet the clinical needs of most patients, these recommendations are not a substitute for clinical judgment, and decisions about care must carefully consider and incorporate the clinical characteristics and circumstances of each individual patient.
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              Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular risk: epidemiology, mechanisms, and prevention.

              Since the first description of the association between chronic kidney disease and heart disease, many epidemiological studies have confirmed and extended this finding. As chronic kidney disease progresses, kidney-specific risk factors for cardiovascular events and disease come into play. As a result, the risk for cardiovascular disease is notably increased in individuals with chronic kidney disease. When adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, impaired kidney function and raised concentrations of albumin in urine increase the risk of cardiovascular disease by two to four times. Yet, cardiovascular disease is frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated in patients with chronic kidney disease. This group of patients should, therefore, be acknowledged as having high cardiovascular risk that needs particular medical attention at an individual level. This view should be incorporated in the development of guidelines and when defining research priorities. Here, we discuss the epidemiology and pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease, and discuss methods of prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                October 2020
                07 October 2020
                : 45
                : 5
                : 748-757
                Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan
                Author notes
                *Kan Saito, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 2608677 (Japan), saitoukann0821@gmail.com
                509291 Kidney Blood Press Res 2020;45:748–757
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 06 March 2020
                : 09 June 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Pages: 10
                Research Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Renal function decline,In-hospital blood pressure variability,Cardiovascular events


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