In 57 nonconsecutive pediatric patients (mean age: 2.6 months) with shunt-related pulmonary hypertension, the efficacy of pulmonary artery banding (PAB) was analysed retrospectively with special reference to the development of pulmonary vascular obstructive disease (PVOD). The patients were grouped in accordance to morphology, hemodynamics and incidence of PVOD. Efficacy of PAB was assessed by pulmonary to systemic pressure, flow and resistance ratios obtained by heart catheterization performed pre- and postoperatively. PAB was very effective in 49 out of 57 patients (= 85.9%), in 8 cases a progression or possible progression of PVOD must be suggested. Only Down syndrome can be considered as a predisposing factor for the development of PVOD. Based on our results we conclude that PAB is a high effective procedure in the prevention of PVOD; however, despite the surgical effectiveness of PAB, PVOD can occur. Strict post-PAB examination of pulmonary flow and resistance parameters is recommended and the definite surgical repair should be performed as early as possible.