23 March 2021
Introduction: Primary autosomal recessive microcephalies (MCPHs) are characterized by primary dwarfism with MCPH and may present delayed psychomotor development and visual impairment. Biallelic loss of function variants in the PLK4 gene , which encodes the polo-like kinase 4 protein involved in centriole biogenesis, has been recently identified in several patients with MCPH and various ethnic backgrounds. Case Presentation: Here, we describe 2 siblings of different sex from Equatorial Guinea harboring a homozygous frameshift mutation in PLK4 (c.1299_1303del, p.Phe433Leufs*6). A Seckel syndrome spectrum phenotype was present in both siblings, with short stature, severe MCPH, reduced brain volume, and distinctive facial features. They also presented severe intellectual disability, lissencephaly/pachygyria, subependymal heterotopia, and ophthalmological impairment. One of them suffered from deafness, and scoliosis was observed in the other. Discussion/Conclusion: Biallelic variants in PLK4 lead to a syndrome where severe short stature, MCPH, and cognitive impairment are constant features. However, ocular, skeletal, and other neurological manifestations can vary upon the same genetic basis.