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      Is Open Access

      Patient Demographic Factors Are Not Associated With Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Concentration in Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate

      research-article
      , M.D., , B.S., , B.S.E., M.S., , B.S., , M.D., Ph.D., , M.D., Ph.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., Ph.D. , , M.D., M.B.A.
      Arthroscopy, Sports Medicine, and Rehabilitation
      Elsevier

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          To describe the capacity for concentration of a single processing machine for bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) production and investigate the effects of demographic factors on the number of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in BMAC.

          Methods

          Patients enrolled in our institution’s randomized control trials involving BMAC who had complete BMAC flow cytometry data were included. Multipotent MSC phenotype, defined as cell-surface coexpression of specific-identifying antigens (≥95% positive) and the absence of hematopoietic lineage markers (≤2% positive), was determined for both patient bone marrow aspirate (BMA) and BMAC samples. The ratio of cells in BMA:BMAC samples was calculated and Spearman correlations (i.e., body mass index [BMI]) and Kruskall–Wallis (i.e., age: <40, 40-60, >60 years) or Mann–Whitney (i.e., sex) tests were used to determine the relationship of cell concentration to demographic factors.

          Results

          Eighty patients were included in analysis (49% male, mean age: 49.9 ± 12.2 years). Mean concentration of BMA and BMAC was 2,048.13 ± 2,004.14 MSCs/mL and 5,618.87 ± 7,568.54 MSC/mL, respectively, with a mean BMAC:BMA ratio of 4.35 ± 2.09. A significantly greater MSC concentration was observed in the BMAC samples when compared with BMA ( P = .005). No patient demographic factors (age, sex, height, weight, BMI) were found to predict MSC concentration in the BMAC samples ( P ≥ .01).

          Conclusions

          Demographic factors, including age, sex, and BMI do not impact the final concentration of MSCs in BMAC when using a single harvest technique (anterior iliac crest) and a single processing system.

          Clinical Relevance

          As the role of BMAC therapy expands in clinical application, it becomes increasingly important to understand the determinants of BMAC composition and how it is affected by different harvesting techniques, concentrating processes, and patient demographics.

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          Most cited references43

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          G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences

          G*Power (Erdfelder, Faul, & Buchner, 1996) was designed as a general stand-alone power analysis program for statistical tests commonly used in social and behavioral research. G*Power 3 is a major extension of, and improvement over, the previous versions. It runs on widely used computer platforms (i.e., Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Mac OS X 10.4) and covers many different statistical tests of the t, F, and chi2 test families. In addition, it includes power analyses for z tests and some exact tests. G*Power 3 provides improved effect size calculators and graphic options, supports both distribution-based and design-based input modes, and offers all types of power analyses in which users might be interested. Like its predecessors, G*Power 3 is free.
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            Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: tests for correlation and regression analyses.

            G*Power is a free power analysis program for a variety of statistical tests. We present extensions and improvements of the version introduced by Faul, Erdfelder, Lang, and Buchner (2007) in the domain of correlation and regression analyses. In the new version, we have added procedures to analyze the power of tests based on (1) single-sample tetrachoric correlations, (2) comparisons of dependent correlations, (3) bivariate linear regression, (4) multiple linear regression based on the random predictor model, (5) logistic regression, and (6) Poisson regression. We describe these new features and provide a brief introduction to their scope and handling.
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              Age-related changes in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: consequences for cell therapies.

              Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) represent a promising cell-based therapy for a number of degenerative conditions. Understanding the effect of aging on hMSCs is crucial for autologous therapy development in older subject whom degenerative diseases typically afflict. Previous investigations into the effects of aging on hMSC have proved contradictory due to the relative narrow age ranges of subjects assessed and the exclusive reliance of in vitro assays. This study seeks to address this controversy by using a wider range of donor ages and by measuring indices of cellular aging as well as hMSC numbers ex vivo and proliferation rates. CFU-f analysis and flow cytometry analysis using a CD45(low)/D7fib(+ve)/LNGF(+ve) gating strategy were employed. In addition a variety of markers of cellular aging, oxidative damage and senescence measured. A reduction in CFU-f and CD45(low)/D7fib(+ve)/LNGF(+ve) cell numbers were noted in adulthood relative to childhood. Indices of aging including oxidative damage, ROS levels and p21 and p53 all increased suggesting a loss of MSC fitness with age. These data suggest that hMSC numbers obtained by marrow aspiration decline with age. Furthermore, there is an age-related decline in overall BM MSC "fitness" which might lead to problems when using autologous aged MSC for cell-based therapies.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil
                Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil
                Arthroscopy, Sports Medicine, and Rehabilitation
                Elsevier
                2666-061X
                19 April 2023
                June 2023
                19 April 2023
                : 5
                : 3
                : e559-e567
                Affiliations
                [1]Midwest Orthopedics at Rush, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.
                Author notes
                []Address correspondence to Adam Yanke, M.D., Ph.D., 1161 W. Harrison St., Chicago, IL 60612. Adam.yanke@ 123456rushortho.com
                Article
                S2666-061X(23)00032-9
                10.1016/j.asmr.2023.02.008
                10300544
                2c23cef9-f1f4-4451-9e51-24b660ec6cee
                © 2023 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the Arthroscopy Association of North America.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 15 December 2021
                : 16 February 2023
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