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      Implantable Left Ventricular Assist Devices and the Kidney

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          Abstract

          The use of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) in treating patients with advanced heart failure restores cardiac output resulting in improved perfusion to multiple organ systems with important clinical benefits. Renal pathophysiology during LVAD support remains an evolving, poorly understood, and potentially dynamic problem. Changes in renal function after LVAD placement have been investigated in multiple studies with contradictory results. Renal dysfunction is common prior to LVAD placement, which complicates postoperative clinical outcomes. The purpose of this review is to assess the latest information regarding the effects of LVADs on renal function with regard to hemodynamics, physiology, pathology and clinical issues prior to and after placement of the devices. The review should then aid in identifying patients best suited to benefit from this technology and to refine the therapy to reduce associated risks.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Trends in heart failure incidence and survival in a community-based population.

          The epidemic of heart failure has yet to be fully investigated, and data on incidence, survival, and sex-specific temporal trends in community-based populations are limited. To test the hypothesis that the incidence of heart failure has declined and survival after heart failure diagnosis has improved over time but that secular trends have diverged by sex. Population-based cohort study using the resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project conducted in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Patients were 4537 Olmsted County residents (57% women; mean [SD] age, 74 [14] years) with a diagnosis of heart failure between 1979 and 2000. Framingham criteria and clinical criteria were used to validate the diagnosis Incidence of heart failure and survival after heart failure diagnosis. The incidence of heart failure was higher among men (378/100 000 persons; 95% confidence interval [CI], 361-395 for men; 289/100 000 persons; 95% CI, 277-300 for women) and did not change over time among men or women. After a mean follow-up of 4.2 years (range, 0-23.8 years), 3347 deaths occurred, including 1930 among women and 1417 among men. Survival after heart failure diagnosis was worse among men than women (relative risk, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.24-1.43) but overall improved over time (5-year age-adjusted survival, 43% in 1979-1984 vs 52% in 1996-2000, P<.001). However, men and younger persons experienced larger survival gains, contrasting with less or no improvement for women and elderly persons. In this community-based cohort, the incidence of heart failure has not declined during 2 decades, but survival after onset of heart failure has increased overall, with less improvement among women and elderly persons.
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            High prevalence of renal dysfunction and its impact on outcome in 118,465 patients hospitalized with acute decompensated heart failure: a report from the ADHERE database.

            The prevalence of renal dysfunction in patients hospitalized with acute decompensated heart failure remains poorly characterized. Data from 118,465 hospitalization episodes were evaluated. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. At admission, 10,660 patients (9.0%) had normal renal function (GFR > or = 90 mL x min x 1.73 m2), 32,423 patients (27.4%) had mild renal dysfunction (GFR 60-89 mL x min x 1.73 m2), 51,553 patients (43.5%) had moderate renal dysfunction (GFR 30-59 mL.min.1.73 m2), 15,553 patients (13.1%) had severe renal dysfunction (GFR 15-29 mL x min x 1.73 m2), and 8276 patients (7.0%) had kidney failure (GFR < 15 mL x min x 1.73 m2 or chronic dialysis). Despite this, only 33.4% of men and 27.3% of women were diagnosed with renal insufficiency. Diuretic dose, inotrope use, and nesiritide use increased, whereas angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker use decreased, with increasing renal dysfunction (all P < .0001 across stages). In-hospital mortality increased from 1.9% for patients with normal renal function to 7.6% and 6.5% for patients with severe dysfunction and kidney failure, respectively (P < .0001). The majority of patients admitted with acute decompensated heart failure have significant renal impairment, which influences treatment and outcomes.
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              Renal insufficiency and heart failure: prognostic and therapeutic implications from a prospective cohort study.

              The prevalence, prognostic import, and impact of renal insufficiency on the benefits of ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers in community-dwelling patients with heart failure are uncertain. We analyzed data from a prospective cohort of 754 patients with heart failure who had ejection fraction, serum creatinine, and weight measured at baseline. Median age was 69 years, and 43% had an ejection fraction > or =35%. By the Cockcroft-Gault equation, 118 patients (16%) had creatinine clearances or =60 mL/min, although these drugs were used less frequently in patients with renal insufficiency. Renal insufficiency is more prevalent in patients with heart failure than previously reported and is an independent prognostic factor in diastolic and systolic dysfunction. ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers were associated with similar reductions in mortality in patients with and without renal insufficiency.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2014
                March 2014
                11 February 2014
                : 37
                : 1
                : 57-66
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Nephrology, Ospedale San Bortolo, bInternational Renal Research Institute Vicenza (IRRIV), Vicenza, Italy; cDepartment of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China; dDepartment of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., USA
                Author notes
                *Claudio Ronco, Department of Nephrology, San Bortolo Hospital, Viale Rodolfi 37, I-36100 Vicenza (Italy), E-Mail cronco@goldnet.it
                Article
                357970 Blood Purif 2014;37:57-66
                10.1159/000357970
                24525434
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 2, Pages: 10
                Categories
                In-Depth Review

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Kidney, Left ventricular assist devices, Renal function

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