We have modified the transformation procedures of Ballance et al. [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 112 (1983) 284-289] to give increased rates of transformation in Aspergillus nidulans. With the modified procedures we have been able to complement pyrG89, a mutation in the orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase gene of A. nidulans, by transformation with a library of wild-type (wt) sequences in pBR329. We have recovered, by marker rescue from one such transformant, a plasmid (pJR15) that carries an A. nidulans sequence that complements pyrG89 efficiently. In three experiments, this plasmid gave an average of 1985 stable transformants/micrograms of transforming DNA. We have analyzed ten of these genetically and by Southern hybridization. In five transformants a single copy of the transforming plasmid had integrated at the pyrG locus, in one transformant several copies of pJR15 had integrated at this locus, in one transformant several copies of the plasmid had integrated into other sites, and in three transformants, the wt allele had apparently replaced the mutant allele with no integration of pBR329 sequences. Sequence and S1 nuclease protection analysis revealed that pJR15 contains a gene that predicts an amino acid sequence with regions of strong homology to the orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylases of Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We conclude that this gene is the wt pyrG allele. Finally, we have compared the 5'- and 3'-noncoding sequences and intron splice sequences to other genes of A. nidulans and have mapped the pyrG locus to a region between the fpaB and galD loci on linkage group I.