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      Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediment and bivalves from Korean coastal waters.


      Bivalvia, metabolism, Geography, Geologic Sediments, analysis, Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers, Korea, Phenyl Ethers, Polybrominated Biphenyls, Seawater, Animals

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          Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in sediment and bivalves collected from 25 coastal locations in Korea. Twenty major PBDE congeners were found in all sediment and bivalve samples. SigmaPBDE20 concentrations ranged from 0.45 to 494 ng/g, dry weight (average 27.8 ng/g dry weight) in sediments, and from 0.38 to 9.19 ng/g, wet weight (average 2.94 ng/g wet weight) in bivalves. The highest concentrations were found at locations near industrial complexes and large harbors, suggesting that human activities contribute to PBDEs contamination in Korean coastal environment. PBDE concentrations measured in our study, excluding BDE congener 209 (deca-BDE), in sediment and bivalves were lower than those reported from other countries; whereas BDE 209 concentrations were comparable to or higher than those reported from other countries. The predominant PBDE congener in sediments and bivalves was deca-BDE, which accounted for >90% and >60% of the total PBDE concentrations in sediment and bivalves, respectively. This is consistent with high consumption of deca-BDE for the flame-retardant market in Korea. Significant correlations existed among BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, 153 and 154 in sediments and bivalves; however, BDEs 183 and 209 showed little correlation compared with less highly brominated congeners.

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