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      Surgical Management of Normocalcemic Primary Hyperparathyroidism

      , ,   ,

      World Journal of Surgery

      Springer Nature

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          Guidelines for the management of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism: summary statement from the third international workshop.

           A. K. Azad Khan,  J. Potts,   (2009)
          Asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common clinical problem. The purpose of this report is to guide the use of diagnostics and management for this condition in clinical practice. Interested professional societies selected representatives for the consensus committee and provided funding for a one-day meeting. A subgroup of this committee set the program and developed key questions for review. Consensus was established at a closed meeting that followed and at subsequent discussions. Each question was addressed by a relevant literature search (on PubMed), and the data were presented for discussion at the group meeting. Consensus was achieved by a group meeting. Statements were prepared and reviewed by all authors who represented the Planning Committee and the participating professional societies.
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            Presentation of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism: proceedings of the third international workshop.

            At the Third International Workshop on Asymptomatic Primary Hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) in May 2008, recent data on the disease were reviewed. We present the results of a literature review on issues arising from the clinical presentation and natural history of PHPT. Questions were developed by the International Task Force on PHPT. A comprehensive literature search for relevant studies was reviewed, and the questions of the International Task Force were addressed by the Consensus Panel. 1) Data on the extent and nature of cardiovascular involvement in those with mild disease are too limited to provide a complete picture. 2) Patients with mild PHPT have neuropsychological complaints. Although some symptoms may improve with surgery, available data remain inconsistent on their precise nature and reversibility. 3) Surgery leads to long-term gains in spine, hip, and radius bone mineral density (BMD). Because some patients have early disease progression and others lose BMD after 8-10 yr, regular monitoring (serum calcium and three-site BMD) is essential in those followed without surgery. Patients may present with normocalcemic PHPT (normal serum calcium with elevated PTH concentrations; no secondary cause for hyperparathyroidism). Data on the incidence and natural history of this phenotype are limited. 4) In the absence of kidney stones, data do not support the use of marked hypercalciuria (>10 mmol/d or 400 mg/d) as an indication for surgery for patients. 5) Patients with bone density T-score -2.5 or less at the lumbar spine, hip, or distal one third radius should have surgery.
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              Normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism: further characterization of a new clinical phenotype.

              Patients with elevated PTH and consistently normal serum calcium levels, in whom secondary causes of hyperparathyroidism have been excluded, may represent the earliest presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). The objective of the study was to characterize patients with normocalcemic PHPT referred to a bone disease unit. This was a longitudinal cohort study. Ambulatory patients were referred to the metabolic bone disease unit. The study population included 37 patients [aged 58 yr, range 32-78; 95% female; serum calcium, 9.4 +/- 0.1 (sem) mg/dl (2.3 +/- 0.02 mmol/liter), reference range, 8.5-10.4 (2.1-2.6 mmol/liter); PTH, 93 +/- 5 pg/ml]. Interventions included yearly (median 3 yr; range 1-8 yr) physical examination, biochemical indices, and bone mineral density (BMD). We measured the development of features of PHPT. Evaluation for classical features of PHPT revealed a history of kidney stones in five (14%), fragility fractures in four (11%), and osteoporosis in 57% [spine (34%), hip (38%), and/or distal one third radius (28%)]. BMD did not show preferential bone loss at the distal one third radius (T scores: spine, -2.00 +/- 0.25; hip, -1.84 +/- 0.18; one third radius, -1.74 +/- 0.22). Further signs of PHPT developed in 40% (seven hypercalcemia; one kidney stone; one fracture; two marked hypercalciuria; six had >10% BMD loss at one or more site(s) including four patients developing World Health Organization criteria for osteoporosis). Seven patients (three hypercalcemic, four persistently normocalcemic) underwent successful parathyroidectomy. Patients seen in a referral center with normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism have more substantial skeletal involvement than is typical in PHPT and develop more features and complications over time. These patients may represent the earliest form of symptomatic, rather than asymptomatic, PHPT.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                World Journal of Surgery
                World J Surg
                Springer Nature
                0364-2313
                1432-2323
                April 2012
                January 2012
                : 36
                : 4
                : 761-766
                Article
                10.1007/s00268-012-1438-y
                22286968
                © 2012
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