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      Morfología intestinal en pollos de engorde con o sin suministro de biomasa de levaduras de la producción de etanol combustible Translated title: Intestinal morphology in broilers with or without supply of yeast biomass from fuel ethanol production

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          Abstract

          El suministro de probióticos puede permitir la sustitución de antibióticos promotores del crecimiento en monogástricos. Se evaluaron los cambios morfométricos, alométricos e inmunológicos en pollos de engorde consumiendo una dieta con biomasa de levaduras producida al fermentar hidrolizados de residuos de banano. Se utilizaron 210 pollos machos Ross 308, alojados en baterías verticales dotadas de calefacción eléctrica, distribuidos al azar en cinco tratamientos, con seis replicas por tratamiento y siete pollos por replica. El alimento y el agua se suministraron a libre voluntad durante 42 días. Los tratamientos fueron: (a) Dieta sin levadura, (b) Dieta con levadura comercial al 1,5% de la dieta, (c) Levadura a 0,5% de la dieta, (d) Levadura a 1,0% de la dieta y (e) Levadura a 1,5% de la dieta. En el día 21 y 42, de un ave por cada repetición (seis por cada tratamiento), se tomaron muestras intestinales de 1 cm a la altura de la porción terminal del páncreas. En cada muestra, se determinó la integridad de la mucosa, la altura de vellosidades y la profundidad de las criptas. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas (P>0,05) en variables alométricas. Hubo diferencias (P<0,05) en el número de anticuerpos en Gumboro, alturas de las vellosidades y profundidades de criptas. Aunque la altura de las vellosidades y profundidades de criptas cambiaron, solo en algunos casos se le pudo atribuir efectos benéficos a la presencia de levaduras. Se requiere más experimentación para dilucidar el impacto sobre estas variables de agregar levaduras a las dietas de aves.

          Translated abstract

          The supply of probiotics may allow replacement of antibiotic growth promoters in monogastric animals. In the present study, the morphometric, allometric and immunological changes occurring in broilers consuming a diet with yeast biomass produced by fermenting waste banana hydrolytes were evaluated. A total of 210 Ross 308 male broilers housed in vertical batteries equipped with electric heating were randomly distributed into fi ve treatments, using six replications per treatment and seven chicks per replicate. Feed and water were offered free-choice for 42 days. The treatments were: (a) diet without yeast, (b) diet with commercial yeast at 1.5% of the diet, (c) diet with 0.5% experimental yeast, (d) diet with 1.0% experimental yeast and (e) diet with 1.5% experimental yeast. On days 21 and 42, from a bird for each repetition (six birds per treatment), intestinal samples of 1 cm to the height of the terminal portion of the pancreas were taken. In each sample, the integrity of the mucosa, the villi height and crypt depth was determined. There were no statistically significant differences (P>0.05) in the allometric variables. There were differences (P<0.05) in the number of antibodies for IBD, villous heights and crypt depths. Although villi height and crypt depths changed, only in some cases could beneficial effects be attributed to the presence of yeast. Further experimentation is required to elucidate the impact on these variables when adding yeast to the diets of poultry.

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          Most cited references30

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          Nutrient Requirements of Poultry

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            Effects of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell components on growth performance, meat quality, and ileal mucosa development of broiler chicks.

            An experiment was conducted with 240, 1-d-old, male broilers to investigate the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) cell components on the growth performance, meat quality, and ileal mucosa development. There were 4 dietary treatments, each consisting of 6 replicates. Whole yeast (WY), SC extract (YE), and SC cell wall (CW) were added at 0.5, 0.3, and 0.3%, respectively, to the control starter and finisher diets. From 0 to 3 wk of age, a lower feed/gain ratio (P < or = 0.05) was observed with CW, whereas the WY-fed birds at 4 to 5 wk of age showed a lower feed/gain ratio compared with the control. From 0 to 5 wk of age, WY and CW gave higher BW gains than did the control. The shear force of raw drumstick decreased in the WY treatment relative to the control, and YE and CW treatments were intermediate. The shear forces in cooked breast and drumstick in treatments WY and YE decreased when compared with the control. The amount of 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in the breast meats of WY, YE, and CW were lower than the control at 10 d of incubation. In raw drumstick meats, TBARS values were lower in treatments WY and YE than that of the control at 6 and 10 d of incubation. At 10 d of incubation, skins from YE and CW treatments had lower TBARS values than did the control. Villus height was greater in WY and CW compared with those in control and YE. No differences were found in crypt depth among the 4 treatments. The villus height/ crypt depth ratios in WY and CW were greater than those of the control and YE. It could be concluded that dietary yeast components, such as WY or CW supplementation improved growth performance. Meat tenderness could be improved by the WY or YE. Both YE and CW had oxidation-reducing effects. Yeast cell wall may improve ileal villus development.
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              Development of intestinal transport function in mammals.

              J Pácha (2000)
              Considerable progress has been made over the last decade in the understanding of mechanisms responsible for the ontogenetic changes of mammalian intestine. This review presents the current knowledge about the development of intestinal transport function in the context of intestinal mucosa ontogeny. The review predominantly focuses on signals that trigger and/or modulate the developmental changes of intestinal transport. After an overview of the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal mucosa, data about the bidirectional traffic (absorption and secretion) across the developing intestinal epithelium are presented. The largest part of the review is devoted to the description of developmental patterns concerning the absorption of nutrients, ions, water, vitamins, trace elements, and milk-borne biologically active substances. Furthermore, the review examines the development of intestinal secretion that has a variety of functions including maintenance of the fluidity of the intestinal content, lubrication of mucosal surface, and mucosal protection. The age-dependent shifts of absorption and secretion are the subject of integrated regulatory mechanisms, and hence, the input of hormonal, nervous, immune, and dietary signals is reviewed. Finally, the utilization of energy for transport processes in the developing intestine is highlighted, and the interactions between various sources of energy are discussed. The review ends with suggestions concerning possible directions of future research.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                zt
                Zootecnia Tropical
                Zootecnia Trop.
                Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agricolas INIA, Maracay, Venezuela.
                0798-7269
                June 2015
                : 33
                : 2
                : 107-116
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad Nacional de Colombia Colombia
                [2 ] Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana Colombia
                Article
                S0798-72692015000200001
                2c4b9194-2e74-4390-81cd-43bc9ba5dc3b

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0798-7269&lng=en
                Categories
                AGRICULTURE, DAIRY & ANIMAL SCIENCE
                VETERINARY SCIENCES

                Animal agriculture,General veterinary medicine
                Agro industrial residues,animal performance,probiotic,Saccharomyces cerevisiae,villi height,Altura de vellosidades,desempeño animal,probiótico,residuo agroindustrial,Saccharomyce cerevisiae

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