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      Involvement of Transglutaminase-2 in Pathological Changes in Renal Disease

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          Abstract

          Background: Transglutaminase (Tg)-2 is shown to be related to renal fibrosis. However, its roles in human kidney disease have not been fully studied. Methods: Using immunohistochemistry, we examined Tg-2 expression in renal biopsy specimens from 22 patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and correlated the intensity of Tg-2 staining with clinical and histopathological parameters. We compared the distribution and intensity of Tg-2 staining with those of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β staining. Results: In normal human kidneys, Tg-2 staining was not significant. In IgAN kidneys, glomerular Tg-2 staining correlated with serum creatinine (S-Cr), creatinine clearance (Ccr), urinary protein excretion, glomerular sclerosis, and mesangial cell proliferation. Tubulointerstitial Tg-2 correlated with S-Cr, Ccr, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, urinary β<sub>2</sub>-microglobulin, and tubulointerstitial injuries. Tg-2 staining in the vicinity of vascular poles of glomeruli preceded the development of mesangial lesions, and was more remarkable in cases with renal impairment. The distribution and intensity of Tg-2 staining were not consistent with those of TGF-β staining. In glomerular crescents, Tg-2 staining was remarkable. Conclusion: The present study showed a correlation between Tg-2 expression and renal function and pathological changes. Tg-2 expression in the vicinity of vascular poles was notable because that may be an initial marker of glomerular injury.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Transglutaminase 2: an enigmatic enzyme with diverse functions.

          Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is an inducible transamidating acyltransferase that catalyzes Ca(2+)-dependent protein modifications. It acts as a G protein in transmembrane signalling and as a cell surface adhesion mediator, this distinguishes it from other members of the transglutaminase family. The sequence motifs and domains revealed in the recent TG2 structure, can each be assigned distinct cellular functions, including the regulation of cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and cell death. Ablation of TG2 in mice results in impaired wound healing, autoimmunity and diabetes, reflecting the number and variety of TG2 functions. An important role for the enzyme in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease, fibrosis and neurodegenerative disorders has also been demonstrated, making TG2 an important therapeutic target.
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            Requirement for transglutaminase in the activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta in bovine endothelial cells

             S Kojima,  DB Rifkin,  K Nara (1993)
            A hitherto unknown function for transglutaminase (TGase; R-glutaminyl- peptide: amine gamma-glutamyltransferase, EC 2.3.2.13) was found in the conversion of latent transforming growth factor-beta (LTGF-beta) to active TGF-beta by bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). The cell- associated, plasmin-mediated activation of LTGF-beta to TGF-beta induced either by treatment of BAECs with retinoids or by cocultures of BAECs and bovine smooth muscle cells (BSMCs) was blocked by seven different inhibitors of TGase as well as a neutralizing antibody to bovine endothelial cell type II TGase. Control experiments indicated that TGase inhibitors and/or a neutralizing antibody to TGase did not interfere with the direct action of TGF-beta, the release of LTGF-beta from cells, or the activation of LTGF-beta by plasmin or by transient acidification. After treatment with retinoids, BAECs expressed increased levels of TGase coordinate with the generation of TGF-beta, whereas BSMCs and bovine embryonic skin fibroblasts, which did not activate LTGF-beta after treatment with retinoids, did not. Furthermore, both TGase inhibitors and a neutralizing antibody to TGase potentiated the effect of retinol in enhancing plasminogen activator (PA) levels in cultures of BAECs by suppressing the TGF-beta-mediated enhancement of PA inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression. These results indicate that type II TGase is a component required for cell surface, plasmin-mediated LTGF-beta activation process and that increased expression of TGase accompanies retinoid-induced activation of LTGF- beta.
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              Mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial fibrosis in 5/6-nephrectomized rats.

              The 5/6 nephrectomy model is used to study pathogenetic mechanisms underlying chronic renal failure. We previously demonstrated that increased mesangial cell proliferation and glomerular PDGF B-chain expression precede glomerulosclerosis in this model. In the present study we have assessed the concomitant changes in the cortical tubulointerstitium. A wave of tubular and interstitial cell proliferation (as determined by immunostaining for PCNA) occurred at week 1 after 5/6 nephrectomy. This wave preceded the peak glomerular cell proliferation by one week. Tubulointerstitial cell proliferation decreased thereafter and reached control values by week 10. In situ hybridization and immunostaining for PDGF B-chain and beta-receptor in sham-operated controls showed labeling of distal tubules and collecting ducts, while no signal was present in the interstitium. PDGF B-chain mRNA and protein expression was markedly increased in tubules at weeks 2 and 4 after 5/6 nephrectomy and in the interstitium (particularly in areas of inflammatory infiltrates) at weeks 2 to 10. Similar changes occurred with PDGF receptor beta-subunit immunostaining. Interstitial expression of desmin and alpha-smooth muscle actin (markers of myofibroblasts) progressively increased after week 1. Interstitial influx of monocytes/macrophages with focal accentuation started at week 2. Counts of lymphocytes, neutrophils and platelets showed only minor changes. In parallel to the monocyte/macrophage influx, progressive interstitial accumulation of collagens I and IV, laminin, and fibronectin occurred. All of these changes were correlated with the increase in serum creatinine, proteinuria and an index of tubulointerstitial damage. We conclude that tubulointerstitial changes after 5/6 nephrectomy show similarities with those observed in the glomeruli. Tubular and interstitial overexpression of PDGF B-chain and its receptor may play a role in mediating fibroblast migration and/or proliferation in areas of tubulointerstitial injury.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2007
                February 2007
                16 January 2007
                : 105
                : 3
                : c139-c146
                Affiliations
                aSecond Department of Internal Medicine, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama, and bDepartment of Nephrology and Kidney and Dialysis Center, Shonan Kamakura General Hospital, Kamakura, Kanagawa, Japan
                Article
                98646 Nephron Clin Pract 2007;105:c139–c146
                10.1159/000098646
                17228174
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 31, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/98646
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