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      Technical advances contribute to the study of genomic imprinting

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      PLoS Genetics

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          Abstract

          Genomic imprinting in mammals was discovered over 30 years ago through elegant embryological and genetic experiments in mice. Imprinted genes show a monoallelic and parent of origin–specific expression pattern; the development of techniques that can distinguish between expression from maternal and paternal chromosomes in mice, combined with high-throughput strategies, has allowed for identification of many more imprinted genes, most of which are conserved in humans. Undoubtedly, technical progress has greatly promoted progress in the field of genomic imprinting. Here, we summarize the techniques used to discover imprinted genes, identify new imprinted genes, define imprinting regulation mechanisms, and study imprinting functions.

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          Most cited references 94

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          Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells.

          Fertilization of mammalian eggs is followed by successive cell divisions and progressive differentiation, first into the early embryo and subsequently into all of the cell types that make up the adult animal. Transfer of a single nucleus at a specific stage of development, to an enucleated unfertilized egg, provided an opportunity to investigate whether cellular differentiation to that stage involved irreversible genetic modification. The first offspring to develop from a differentiated cell were born after nuclear transfer from an embryo-derived cell line that had been induced to become quiescent. Using the same procedure, we now report the birth of live lambs from three new cell populations established from adult mammary gland, fetus and embryo. The fact that a lamb was derived from an adult cell confirms that differentiation of that cell did not involve the irreversible modification of genetic material required for development to term. The birth of lambs from differentiated fetal and adult cells also reinforces previous speculation that by inducing donor cells to become quiescent it will be possible to obtain normal development from a wide variety of differentiated cells.
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            Altering the genome by homologous recombination.

            Homologous recombination between DNA sequences residing in the chromosome and newly introduced, cloned DNA sequences (gene targeting) allows the transfer of any modification of the cloned gene into the genome of a living cell. This article discusses the current status of gene targeting with particular emphasis on germ line modification of the mouse genome, and describes the different methods so far employed to identify those rare embryonic stem cells in which the desired targeting event has occurred.
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              Parental imprinting of the mouse insulin-like growth factor II gene.

              We are studying mice that carry a targeted disruption of the gene encoding insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). Transmission of this mutation through the male germline results in heterozygous progeny that are growth deficient. In contrast, when the disrupted gene is transmitted maternally, the heterozygous offspring are phenotypically normal. Therefore, the difference in growth phenotypes depends on the type of gamete contributing the mutated allele. Homozygous mutants are indistinguishable in appearance from growth-deficient heterozygous siblings. Nuclease protection and in situ hybridization analyses of the transcripts from the wild-type and mutated alleles indicate that only the paternal allele is expressed in embryos, while the maternal allele is silent. An exception is the choroid plexus and leptomeninges, where both alleles are transcriptionally active. These results demonstrate that IGF-II is indispensable for normal embryonic growth and that the IGF-II gene is subject to tissue-specific parental imprinting.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS Genet
                PLoS Genet
                plos
                plosgen
                PLoS Genetics
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1553-7390
                1553-7404
                20 June 2019
                June 2019
                : 15
                : 6
                Affiliations
                State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Andrology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
                University of Pennsylvania, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PGENETICS-D-19-00014
                10.1371/journal.pgen.1008151
                6586256
                31220079
                © 2019 Li, Li

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Pages: 15
                Product
                Funding
                This work was supported by Genome Tagging Project and grants from the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDB19010204), Shanghai Municipal Commission for Science and Technology (17411954900, 17411954900, 17JC1420102, 16JC1420500), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31530048, 81672117, and 31730062) and China Postdoctoral Science foundation (2018M640428). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Review
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Developmental Biology
                Genomic Imprinting
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Genetics
                Epigenetics
                Genomic Imprinting
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Developmental Biology
                Embryology
                Embryos
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Genetics
                Genomics
                Animal Genomics
                Mammalian Genomics
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Cell Biology
                Cellular Types
                Animal Cells
                Germ Cells
                OVA
                Oocytes
                Biology and life sciences
                Cell biology
                Chromosome biology
                Chromatin
                Chromatin modification
                DNA methylation
                Biology and life sciences
                Genetics
                Epigenetics
                Chromatin
                Chromatin modification
                DNA methylation
                Biology and life sciences
                Genetics
                Gene expression
                Chromatin
                Chromatin modification
                DNA methylation
                Biology and life sciences
                Genetics
                DNA
                DNA modification
                DNA methylation
                Biology and life sciences
                Biochemistry
                Nucleic acids
                DNA
                DNA modification
                DNA methylation
                Biology and life sciences
                Genetics
                Epigenetics
                DNA modification
                DNA methylation
                Biology and life sciences
                Genetics
                Gene expression
                DNA modification
                DNA methylation
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Genetics
                Gene Expression
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Computational Biology
                Genome Analysis
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Genetics
                Genomics
                Genome Analysis
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Animal Studies
                Experimental Organism Systems
                Model Organisms
                Mouse Models
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Model Organisms
                Mouse Models
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Animal Studies
                Experimental Organism Systems
                Animal Models
                Mouse Models

                Genetics

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