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      Persian medicine recommendations for the prevention of pandemics related to the respiratory system: a narrative literature review

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background

          Pandemics of infectious diseases have long been regarded as societal challenges. This study aimed to summarize the theories of Persian medicine for controlling respiratory disease-related pandemics and to compare these theories with the findings of modern medicine.

          Methods

          We searched the classic medical reference books of the 9th to 19th centuries for the terms ‘polluted air’ and ‘pandemic’, and we searched 4 databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Scopus) with the keywords ‘COVID-19’, ‘pandemic’, ‘history’, and ‘prevention programs’. The results were collected and subjected to content analysis.

          Results

          From the point of view of traditional Iranian physicians, disease prevention is primarily possible by avoiding pathogenic factors. As a secondary solution, reducing one's susceptibility to the disease is crucial; this can be achieved through cleansing the body and strengthening the mood, reducing food intake, decreasing the internal humidity, disinfecting the house with herbal fumigation, and making use of pleasant aromas. Some of these recommendations are reaffirmed by modern research.

          Conclusion

          Persian medicine techniques may be preventive during respiratory, influenza-like disease pandemics. However, rigorous studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Essential oils used in aromatherapy: A systemic review

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            Mice and flies and monkeys too: caloric restriction rejuvenates the aging immune system of non-human primates.

            Humanity has been obsessed with extending life span and reversing the aging process throughout recorded history and this quest most likely preceded the invention of the written word. The search for eternal youth has spurred holy wars and precipitated the discovery of the new world (the 'Fountain of youth'). It therefore comes as no surprise that an increasingly greater amount of research effort is dedicated to improve our understanding of the aging process and finding interventions to moderate its impact on health. Caloric restriction (CR) is the only intervention in biology that consistently extends maximal and median life span in a variety of short-lived species. Several theories to explain the mechanisms of action of CR have been put forth, including the possibility that CR acts by retarding immune senescence. The question remains, however, whether CR will have the same beneficial impact on human aging, and, if so, how long does CR need to last to produce beneficial effects. To address this question, several groups initiated long-term studies in Rhesus macaques (RM) in the 1980s. Here, we review published data describing the impact of CR on the aging immune system of mice and primates, and discuss our unpublished data that delineate similarities and differences in the effects of CR upon T cell aging and homeostasis between these two models.
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              Sleep, immunity and inflammation in gastrointestinal disorders.

              Sleep disorders have become a global issue, and discovering their causes and consequences are the focus of many research endeavors. An estimated 70 million Americans suffer from some form of sleep disorder. Certain sleep disorders have been shown to cause neurocognitive impairment such as decreased cognitive ability, slower response times and performance detriments. Recent research suggests that individuals with sleep abnormalities are also at greater risk of serious adverse health, economic consequences, and most importantly increased all-cause mortality. Several research studies support the associations among sleep, immune function and inflammation. Here, we review the current research linking sleep, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases and discuss the interdependent relationship between sleep and these gastrointestinal disorders. Different physiologic processes including immune system and inflammatory cytokines help regulate the sleep. The inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6 have been shown to be a significant contributor of sleep disturbances. On the other hand, sleep disturbances such as sleep deprivation have been shown to up regulate these inflammatory cytokines. Alterations in these cytokine levels have been demonstrated in certain gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, gastro-esophageal reflux, liver disorders and colorectal cancer. In turn, abnormal sleep brought on by these diseases is shown to contribute to the severity of these same gastrointestinal diseases. Knowledge of these relationships will allow gastroenterologists a great opportunity to enhance the care of their patients.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Integr Med Res
                Integr Med Res
                Integrative Medicine Research
                Elsevier
                2213-4220
                2213-4239
                25 July 2020
                25 July 2020
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Traditional Persian Medicine, School of Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
                [b ]Research Center for Traditional Medicine and History of Medicine, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Research Center for Traditional Medicine and History of Medicine, School of Medicine, Zand St. Shiraz 71348-45794, Iran. Tel.: +32338476. pasalar@ 123456sums.ac.ir
                Article
                S2213-4220(20)30115-3 100483
                10.1016/j.imr.2020.100483
                7381935
                .

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                Categories
                Article

                prevention, respiratory, persian medicine, pandemic, covid-19

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