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      A cellular screen identifies ponatinib and pazopanib as inhibitors of necroptosis

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          Abstract

          Necroptosis is a form of regulated necrotic cell death mediated by receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and RIPK3. Necroptotic cell death contributes to the pathophysiology of several disorders involving tissue damage, including myocardial infarction, stroke and ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, no inhibitors of necroptosis are currently in clinical use. Here we performed a phenotypic screen for small-molecule inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF )-induced necroptosis in Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD)-deficient Jurkat cells using a representative panel of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. We identified two anti-cancer agents, ponatinib and pazopanib, as submicromolar inhibitors of necroptosis. Both compounds inhibited necroptotic cell death induced by various cell death receptor ligands in human cells, while not protecting from apoptosis. Ponatinib and pazopanib abrogated phosphorylation of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) upon TNF- α-induced necroptosis, indicating that both agents target a component upstream of MLKL. An unbiased chemical proteomic approach determined the cellular target spectrum of ponatinib, revealing key members of the necroptosis signaling pathway. We validated RIPK1, RIPK3 and transforming growth factor- β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) as novel, direct targets of ponatinib by using competitive binding, cellular thermal shift and recombinant kinase assays. Ponatinib inhibited both RIPK1 and RIPK3, while pazopanib preferentially targeted RIPK1. The identification of the FDA-approved drugs ponatinib and pazopanib as cellular inhibitors of necroptosis highlights them as potentially interesting for the treatment of pathologies caused or aggravated by necroptotic cell death.

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          Most cited references36

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          IAP antagonists target cIAP1 to induce TNFalpha-dependent apoptosis.

          XIAP prevents apoptosis by binding to and inhibiting caspases, and this inhibition can be relieved by IAP antagonists, such as Smac/DIABLO. IAP antagonist compounds (IACs) have therefore been designed to inhibit XIAP to kill tumor cells. Because XIAP inhibits postmitochondrial caspases, caspase 8 inhibitors should not block killing by IACs. Instead, we show that apoptosis caused by an IAC is blocked by the caspase 8 inhibitor crmA and that IAP antagonists activate NF-kappaB signaling via inhibtion of cIAP1. In sensitive tumor lines, IAP antagonist induced NF-kappaB-stimulated production of TNFalpha that killed cells in an autocrine fashion. Inhibition of NF-kappaB reduced TNFalpha production, and blocking NF-kappaB activation or TNFalpha allowed tumor cells to survive IAC-induced apoptosis. Cells treated with an IAC, or those in which cIAP1 was deleted, became sensitive to apoptosis induced by exogenous TNFalpha, suggesting novel uses of these compounds in treating cancer.
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            AP24534, a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor for chronic myeloid leukemia, potently inhibits the T315I mutant and overcomes mutation-based resistance.

            Inhibition of BCR-ABL by imatinib induces durable responses in many patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but resistance attributable to kinase domain mutations can lead to relapse and a switch to second-line therapy with nilotinib or dasatinib. Despite three approved therapeutic options, the cross-resistant BCR-ABL(T315I) mutation and compound mutants selected on sequential inhibitor therapy remain major clinical challenges. We report design and preclinical evaluation of AP24534, a potent, orally available multitargeted kinase inhibitor active against T315I and other BCR-ABL mutants. AP24534 inhibited all tested BCR-ABL mutants in cellular and biochemical assays, suppressed BCR-ABL(T315I)-driven tumor growth in mice, and completely abrogated resistance in cell-based mutagenesis screens. Our work supports clinical evaluation of AP24534 as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor for treatment of CML.
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              Translocation of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein to plasma membrane leads to necrotic cell death

              Mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) was identified to function downstream of receptor interacting protein 3 (RIP3) in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF)-induced necrosis (also called necroptosis). However, how MLKL functions to mediate necroptosis is unknown. By reconstitution of MLKL function in MLKL-knockout cells, we showed that the N-terminus of MLKL is required for its function in necroptosis. The oligomerization of MLKL in TNF-treated cells is essential for necroptosis, as artificially forcing MLKL together by using the hormone-binding domain (HBD*) triggers necroptosis. Notably, forcing together the N-terminal domain (ND) but not the C-terminal kinase domain of MLKL causes necroptosis. Further deletion analysis showed that the four-α-helix bundle of MLKL (1-130 amino acids) is sufficient to trigger necroptosis. Both the HBD*-mediated and TNF-induced complexes of MLKL(ND) or MLKL are tetramers, and translocation of these complexes to lipid rafts of the plasma membrane precedes cell death. The homo-oligomerization is required for MLKL translocation and the signal sequence for plasma membrane location is located in the junction of the first and second α-helices of MLKL. The plasma membrane translocation of MLKL or MLKL(ND) leads to sodium influx, and depletion of sodium from the cell culture medium inhibits necroptosis. All of the above phenomena were not seen in apoptosis. Thus, the MLKL oligomerization leads to translocation of MLKL to lipid rafts of plasma membrane, and the plasma membrane MLKL complex acts either by itself or via other proteins to increase the sodium influx, which increases osmotic pressure, eventually leading to membrane rupture.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cell Death Dis
                Cell Death Dis
                Cell Death & Disease
                Nature Publishing Group
                2041-4889
                May 2015
                21 May 2015
                1 May 2015
                : 6
                : 5
                : e1767
                Affiliations
                [1 ]CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences , Vienna, Austria
                [2 ]Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Christian-Albrechts-University , Kiel 24105 Germany
                Author notes
                [* ]CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences , Lazarettgasse 14, AKH BT25.3, Vienna 1090 Austria. Tel: +43 664 4042300; Fax: +43 140160970000; Email: gsuperti@ 123456cemm.oeaw.ac.at
                [3]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                [4]

                Current address: Innate Immunity Laboratory, Max-Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried/Munich, Germany.

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6172-4211
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6287-9725
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0570-1768
                Article
                cddis2015130
                10.1038/cddis.2015.130
                4669708
                25996294
                2c889708-ed73-4ea2-af6a-d810cfc6cd63
                Copyright © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited

                Cell Death and Disease is an open-access journal published by Nature Publishing Group. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                : 16 February 2015
                : 31 March 2015
                : 06 April 2015
                Categories
                Original Article

                Cell biology
                Cell biology

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