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      Cyclosporine Prolongs Delayed Graft Function in Kidney Transplantation: Are Rabbit Anti-Human Thymocyte Globulins the Answer?

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          Abstract

          Background: Cyclosporine (CsA) nephrotoxicity may prolong duration of anuria in renal transplant patients with delayed graft function (DGF). Thus, many Transplant Centers tend to delay CsA treatment in order to accelerate renal function recovery. Methods: In this single-center, retrospective analysis we compared the outcomes of 40 renal transplant patients with DGF given a CsA-based (n = 17) regimen since the day of transplant or a CsA-sparing regimen (n = 23) based on early treatment with rabbit anti-human thymocyte globulin (RATG) and delayed CsA administration. We studied all patients with DGF who received a first or second graft at the Bergamo Transplant Center from January 1992 to March 2000. Results: Patients given RATG as compared to those on CsA had significantly shorter duration of anuria (11.0 ± 5.6 vs. 19.6 ± 8.9 days; p < 0.005) and of initial hospitalization (17.4 ± 4.3 vs. 27.4 ± 10.4 days; p < 0.001). Throughout the whole study period, 4 patients on RATG as compared to 6 on CsA had an acute rejection episode (p > 0.05). However, no patient on RATG as compared to 4 on CsA had an acute rejection during the anuria period (p < 0.05). Costs including hospitalization, dialysis treatment and study drugs were significantly lower in RATG than in CsA patients (EUR 29,944 ± 7,281 vs. 36,795 ± 13,656; p < 0.05). Conclusions: In renal transplant patients with DGF, early RATG treatment with delayed CsA administration accelerated renal function recovery and patient discharge, prevented occult rejections throughout the anuria period and significantly decreased the treatment costs.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Delayed graft function in kidney transplantation.

          Delayed graft function is a form of acute renal failure resulting in post-transplantation oliguria, increased allograft immunogenicity and risk of acute rejection episodes, and decreased long-term survival. Factors related to the donor and prerenal, renal, or postrenal transplant factors related to the recipient can contribute to this condition. From experimental studies, we have learnt that both ischaemia and reinstitution of blood flow in ischaemically damaged kidneys after hypothermic preservation activate a complex sequence of events that sustain renal injury and play a pivotal part in the development of delayed graft function. Elucidation of the pathophysiology of renal ischaemia and reperfusion injury has contributed to the development of strategies to decrease the rate of delayed graft function, focusing on donor management, organ procurement and preservation techniques, recipient fluid management, and pharmacological agents (vasodilators, antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents). Several new drugs show promise in animal studies in preventing or ameliorating ischaemia-reperfusion injury and possibly delayed graft function, but definitive clinical trials are lacking. The goal of monotherapy for the prevention or treatment of is perhaps unattainable, and multidrug approaches or single drug targeting multiple signals will be the next step to reduce post-transplantation injury and delayed graft function.
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            Delayed graft function: risk factors and implications for renal allograft survival.

            Delayed graft function (DGF) may be associated with diminished kidney allograft survival. We studied the risk factors that lead to nonimmediate function of a renal allograft and the consequences of DGF on short- and long-term renal transplant survival. Data from the U.S. Renal Data System were used to measure the relationships among cold ischemia time, delayed graft function, acute rejection, and graft survival in 37,216 primary cadaveric renal transplants (1985-1992). These relationships were investigated using the unconditional logistic and Cox multivariate regression methods. Cold ischemia time was strongly associated with DGF, with a 23% increase in the risk of DGF for every 6 hr of cold ischemia (P<0.001). Acute transplant rejection occurred more frequently in grafts with delayed function (37% vs. 20%; odds ratio=2.25, P=0.001). DGF was independently predictive of 5-year graft loss (relative risk=1.53, P<0.001). The presence of both early acute rejection and DGF portended a dismal 5-year graft survival rate of 35%. Zero-HLA mismatch conferred a 10-15% improvement in 1- and 5-year graft survival regardless of early functional status of the allograft. However, the 5-year graft survival rate in HLA-mismatched kidneys without DGF was significantly higher than that of zero-mismatched kidneys with DGF (63% vs. 51%; P<0.001). DGF independently portends a significant reduction in short- and long-term graft survival. Delayed function and early rejection episodes exerted an additive adverse effect on allograft survival. The deleterious impact of delayed function is comparatively more severe than that of poor HLA matching.
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              Delayed graft function of more than six days strongly decreases long-term survival of transplanted kidneys.

              We reviewed 843 first cadaver kidney transplants carried out consecutively at our center to examine the effect on long-term graft survival of the duration of delayed graft function (DGF), defined as the time taken for the kidney to attain the threshold of a Cockcroft calculated creatinine clearance (cCCr) > or = 10 ml/min. Using a multivariate Cox survival analysis we evaluated the consequences of DGF on allograft survival, and then by regression analysis identified the factors contributing to the occurrence of DGF. Finally, using a Kaplan Meier analysis we compared the profiles of graft failure according to the duration of DGF. Defining DGF in terms of cCCr rather than necessity for dialysis after transplantation allowed better prediction of long-term graft loss. Indeed, patients with a Cockcroft-based DGF > six days who did not require dialysis (12%) had a significantly poorer long-term graft outcome than those with a DGF six days was not associated with further worsening of graft survival (except in DGF > 30 days). Our results suggest a threshold effect in the lesions that ultimately results in long-term functional deficiency. In addition, we show that the need for dialysis is not an adequate criterium for DGF in terms of long-term outcome prediction.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2005
                October 2005
                08 June 2005
                : 101
                : 2
                : c65-c71
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Medicine and Transplantation, Azienda Ospedaliera Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo, bMario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Bergamo, Italy; cDepartment of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Health Science, University of Parma, Italy, and dDepartment of Hemodialysis and Kidney Transplantation, Republican Clinical Hospital, Chisinau, Moldova
                Article
                86224 Nephron Clin Pract 2005;101:c65–c71
                10.1159/000086224
                15942253
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, References: 26, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/86224
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