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      Design of biodegradable, implantable devices towards clinical translation

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          Biodegradable polymers as biomaterials

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            Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics.

            Electronics that are capable of intimate, non-invasive integration with the soft, curvilinear surfaces of biological tissues offer important opportunities for diagnosing and treating disease and for improving brain/machine interfaces. This article describes a material strategy for a type of bio-interfaced system that relies on ultrathin electronics supported by bioresorbable substrates of silk fibroin. Mounting such devices on tissue and then allowing the silk to dissolve and resorb initiates a spontaneous, conformal wrapping process driven by capillary forces at the biotic/abiotic interface. Specialized mesh designs and ultrathin forms for the electronics ensure minimal stresses on the tissue and highly conformal coverage, even for complex curvilinear surfaces, as confirmed by experimental and theoretical studies. In vivo, neural mapping experiments on feline animal models illustrate one mode of use for this class of technology. These concepts provide new capabilities for implantable and surgical devices.
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              Macrophages: master regulators of inflammation and fibrosis.

              Macrophages are found in close proximity with collagen-producing myofibroblasts and indisputably play a key role in fibrosis. They produce profibrotic mediators that directly activate fibroblasts, including transforming growth factor-beta1 and platelet-derived growth factor, and control extracellular matrix turnover by regulating the balance of various matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases. Macrophages also regulate fibrogenesis by secreting chemokines that recruit fibroblasts and other inflammatory cells. With their potential to act in both a pro- and antifibrotic capacity, as well as their ability to regulate the activation of resident and recruited myofibroblasts, macrophages and the factors they express are integrated into all stages of the fibrotic process. These various, and sometimes opposing, functions may be performed by distinct macrophage subpopulations, the identification of which is a growing focus of fibrosis research. Although collagen-secreting myofibroblasts once were thought of as the master "producers" of fibrosis, this review will illustrate how macrophages function as the master "regulators" of fibrosis. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Materials
                Nat Rev Mater
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                2058-8437
                January 2020
                December 2 2019
                January 2020
                : 5
                : 1
                : 61-81
                Article
                10.1038/s41578-019-0150-z
                2c9ac7c8-ec3d-44dc-8a9d-43adf4e5e113
                © 2020

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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