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      Hyponatraemia in cases of children with pneumonia


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          Hyponatraemia is the most common electrolyte imbalance seen in clinical practice, and a common laboratory finding in children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study aimed to identify the incidence of hyponatraemia in cases of CAP, to find predictive tools in order to classify the severity and outcome of CAP and to explore possible differences of clinical importance between the two sexes.

          Material and methods

          The medical files of 54 children (66.4% males), 4.67 ±2.88 years old, were retro-prospectively reviewed.


          35/54 (64.8%) children with pneumonia had normal values of sodium at admission, 18/54 (33.3%) had mild hyponatraemia and 1 child (1.9%) moderate hyponatraemia. Increased heart rhythm and tachypnoea at admission were correlated with lower values of sodium ( z= −2.664, p = 0.007 and z = −1.705, p = 0.089 respectively). No differences were found between the two sexes concerning the characteristics of pneumonia or the range of sodium in serum at admission. A correlation was found between sodium admission values and: a) C-reactive protein ( p = 0.000), and b) leukocyte count ( p = 0.006). Sedimentation rate ( p = 0.021) was also considered as a possible risk factor affecting the value of sodium at admission to hospital. Finally, a negative association was also observed between the degree of hyponatraemia and the duration of hospitalization ( z = −3.398, p = 0.001).


          Although studies in larger population groups are needed, in our study increased heart rhythm, tachypnoea, leucocyte count, C-reactive protein, and also erythrocyte sedimentation rate could be considered as possible risk factors influencing the degree of hyponatraemia, and thus the outcome of hospitalized children with CAP.

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          Most cited references28

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          Hyponatremia: a prospective analysis of its epidemiology and the pathogenetic role of vasopressin.

          We prospectively evaluated the frequency, cause, and outcome of hyponatremia (plasma sodium concentration, less than 130 meq/L), as well as the hormonal response to this condition, in hospitalized patients. Daily incidence and prevalence of hyponatremia averaged 0.97% and 2.48%, respectively. Two thirds of all hyponatremia was hospital acquired. Normovolemic states (so-called syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone) were the most commonly seen clinical setting of hyponatremia. The fatality rate for hyponatremic patients was 60-fold that for patients without documented hyponatremia. Nonosmotic secretion of vasopressin was present in 97% of hyponatremic patients in whom it was sought. In edematous and hypovolemic patients, plasma hormonal responses (increases in plasma renin activity and aldosterone and norepinephrine levels) were compatible with baroreceptor-mediated release of vasopressin. Hyponatremia is a common hospital-acquired electrolyte disturbance that is an indicator of poor prognosis. Nonosmotic secretion of arginine vasopressin is a major pathogenetic factor in this electrolyte disturbance.
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            Hyponatremia in Community-Acquired Pneumonia

            Background/Aim: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a frequent cause for hospitalization and may result in a number of different renal and electrolyte complications. The purpose of this study was to describe the incidence of hyponatremia in CAP and to analyze risk factors for its occurrence. Methods: Records were reviewed for all 342 subjects who participated in the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Standardized Order Set study, a 2-year trial of supplemental treatment tools in hospital pneumonia treatment. Results: Hyponatremia (serum sodium concentration <136 mg/dl) was present at hospital admission in 27.9% of patients. The magnitude was generally mild, only 4.1% of patients had serum sodium <130 mEq/l. Patients with hyponatremia had greater initial heart rate (100.2 vs. 93.2 beats/min, p = 0.03), white blood cell count (15,100 vs. 12,100/µl, p < 0.0001) and pneumonia severity index class 4 or 5 (35.7 vs. 25.1% of patients, p = 0.05). Hyponatremia at admission was associated with greater risk for death and increased length of hospital stay. Hyponatremia developed during the hospitalization in 10.5% of subjects, with most cases being mild, only 2.6% of all patients having serum sodium decrease to <130 mEq/l. Patients developing hyponatremia were more likely to have end-stage renal disease and to have had initial intravenous fluids other than isotonic saline, but had similar severity of illness on admission to those without acquired hyponatremia. Conclusion: Hyponatremia is a common complication present at the time of admission for CAP. It is associated with more severe illness, increased mortality risk and extended hospital stays. Hyponatremia develops less frequently during the hospitalization and is unrelated to severity of illness on admission, but is an iatrogenic complication and thus initial treatment with isotonic saline may reduce the risk of this complication.
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              The natriuretic-peptide family.


                Author and article information

                Arch Med Sci
                Archives of Medical Science : AMS
                Termedia Publishing House
                07 September 2010
                30 August 2010
                : 6
                : 4
                : 578-583
                2 nd Department of Paediatrics, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Afroditi Sakellaropoulou, MD, 2 nd Department of Paediatrics, Medical School Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. E-mail: wx@ 123456otenet.gr
                Copyright © 2010 Termedia & Banach

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License, permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 14 November 2009
                : 05 January 2010
                : 14 February 2010
                Clinical Research

                children,risk factors,hyponatraemia,pneumonia
                children, risk factors, hyponatraemia, pneumonia


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