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      An assessment of antibacterial activity of three pulp capping materials on Enterococcus faecalis by a direct contact test: An in vitro study


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          The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate antimicrobial activities of three different pulp capping materials; Biodentine, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Angelus, and Dycal against Enterococcus faecalis and their durability with time.

          Materials and Methods:

          Direct contact test was used for the assessment. Three sets of sealers were mixed and placed on microtiter plate wells: One set was used within 20 min of recommended setting time while others were used after 24-h and 1-week. E. faecalis suspension was placed directly on the materials for 1 h and then transferred to another plate with fresh media. Nine wells of bacteria without the tested cements served as the positive control. One well of the tested cements without bacteria served as the negative control. Bacterial growth was evaluated by a temperature-controlled microplate spectrophotometer for 1-h intervals among 24 h. Data were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis test.


          All tested materials showed less bacterial density than the control group. MTA, Biodentine, and Dycal showed significantly higher bacterial density than the control group in freshly mixed samples ( P < 0.05). And MTA showed significantly higher antibacterial activity than Dycal ( P < 0.05). In 24 h, materials did not show any differences ( P > 0.05). MTA and Biodentine samples showed significant differences than Dycal; MTA also showed higher antibacterial activity than control in 1-week samples ( P < 0.05).


          While freshly mixed MTA showed the best antibacterial activity over time, Biodentine had shown similar antibacterial activity to MTA.

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          Most cited references29

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          Microbiologic analysis of teeth with failed endodontic treatment and the outcome of conservative re-treatment.

          The purposes of this study were to determine what microbial flora were present in teeth after failed root canal therapy and to establish the outcome of conservative re-treatment. Fifty-four root-filled teeth with persisting periapical lesions were selected for re-treatment. After removal of the root filling, canals were sampled by means of advanced microbiologic techniques. The teeth were then re-treated and followed for up to 5 years. The microbial flora was mainly single species of predominantly gram-positive organisms. The isolates most commonly recovered were bacteria of the species Enterococcus faecalis. The overall success rate of re-treatment was 74%. The microbial flora in canals after failed endodontic therapy differed markedly from the flora in untreated teeth. Infection at the time of root filling and size of the periapical lesion were factors that had a negative influence on the prognosis. Three of four endodontic failures were successfully managed by re-treatment.
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            Properties and applications of calcium hydroxide in endodontics and dental traumatology.

            Calcium hydroxide has been included within several materials and antimicrobial formulations that are used in a number of treatment modalities in endodontics. These include, inter-appointment intracanal medicaments, pulp-capping agents and root canal sealers. Calcium hydroxide formulations are also used during treatment of root perforations, root fractures and root resorption and have a role in dental traumatology, for example, following tooth avulsion and luxation injuries. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties and clinical applications of calcium hydroxide in endodontics and dental traumatology including its antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, effect on bacterial biofilms, the synergism between calcium hydroxide and other agents, its effects on the properties of dentine, the diffusion of hydroxyl ions through dentine and its toxicity. Pure calcium hydroxide paste has a high pH (approximately 12.5-12.8) and is classified chemically as a strong base. Its main actions are achieved through the ionic dissociation of Ca(2+) and OH(-) ions and their effect on vital tissues, the induction of hard-tissue deposition and the antibacterial properties. The lethal effects of calcium hydroxide on bacterial cells are probably due to protein denaturation and damage to DNA and cytoplasmic membranes. It has a wide range of antimicrobial activity against common endodontic pathogens but is less effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Calcium hydroxide is also an effective anti-endotoxin agent. However, its effect on microbial biofilms is controversial. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.
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              Investigation of the hydration and bioactivity of radiopacified tricalcium silicate cement, Biodentine and MTA Angelus.

              Novel root-end filling materials are composed of tricalcium silicate (TCS) and radiopacifier as opposed to the traditional mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) which is made up of clinker derived from Portland cement and bismuth oxide. The aim of this research was to characterize and investigate the hydration of a tricalcium silicate-based proprietary brand cement (Biodentine™) and a laboratory manufactured cement made with a mixture of tricalcium silicate and zirconium oxide (TCS-20-Z) and compare their properties to MTA Angelus™. The materials investigated included a cement containing 80% of TCS and 20% zirconium oxide (TCS-20-Z), Biodentine™ and MTA Angelus™. The specific surface area and the particle size distribution of the un-hydrated cements and zirconium oxide were investigated using a gas adsorption method and scanning electron microscopy. Un-hydrated cements and set materials were tested for mineralogy and microstructure, assessment of bioactivity and hydration. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refined X-ray diffraction and calorimetry were employed. The radiopacity of the materials was investigated using ISO 6876 methods. The un-hydrated cements were composed of tricalcium silicate and a radiopacifier phase; zirconium oxide for both Biodentine™ and TCS-20-Z whereas bismuth oxide for MTA Angelus™. In addition Biodentine™ contained calcium carbonate particles and MTA Angelus™ exhibited the presence of dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate, calcium, aluminum and silicon oxides. TCS and MTA Angelus™ exhibited similar specific surface area while Biodentine™ had a greater specific surface area. The cements hydrated and produced some hydrates located either as reaction rim around the tricalcium silicate grain or in between the grains at the expense of volume containing the water initially present in the mixture. The rate of reaction of tricalcium calcium silicate was higher for Biodentine™ than for TCS-20-Z owing to its optimized particle size distribution, the presence of CaCO₃ and the use of CaCl₂. Tricalcium calcium silicate in MTA hydrated even more slowly than TCS-20-Z as evident from the size of reaction rim representative of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) around tricalcium silicate grains and the calorimetry measurements. On the other hand, calcium oxide contained in MTA Angelus™ hydrated very fast inducing an intense exothermic reaction. Calcium hydroxide was produced as a by-product of reaction in all hydrated cements but in greater quantities in MTA due to the hydration of calcium oxide. This lead to less dense microstructure than the one observed for both Biodentine™ and TCS-20-Z. All the materials were bioactive and allowed the deposition of hydroxyapatite on the cement surface in the presence of simulated body fluid and the radiopacity was greater than 3mm aluminum thickness. All the cement pastes tested were composed mainly of tricalcium silicate and a radiopacifier. The laboratory manufactured cement contained no other additives. Biodentine™ included calcium carbonate which together with the additives in the mixing liquid resulted in a material with enhanced chemical properties relative to TCS-20-Z prototype cement. On the other hand MTA Angelus™ displayed the presence of calcium, aluminum and silicon oxides in the un-hydrated powder. These phases are normally associated with the raw materials indicating that the clinker of MTA Angelus™ is incompletely sintered leading to a potential important variability in its mineralogy depending on the sintering conditions. As a consequence, the amount of tricalcium silicate is less than in the two other cements leading to a slower reaction rate and more porous microstructure. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Eur J Dent
                Eur J Dent
                European Journal of Dentistry
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                Apr-Jun 2015
                : 9
                : 2
                : 240-245
                [1 ]Department of Pedodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkiye
                [2 ]Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkiye
                [3 ]Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkiye
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Dr. Mine Koruyucu Email: minekoruyucu@ 123456gmail.com
                Copyright: © European Journal of Dentistry

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Article

                antibacterial effect,bacteria,biodentine,calcium hydroxide,calcium silicate,dental materials,direct contact test,enterococcus faecalis,mineral trioxide aggregate,pulp capping


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