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      Membrane-Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Downregulates Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Binding to the Cell Surface and Intracellular Signaling : MT1-MMP CONTROL OF FGF-2 SIGNALING

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      Journal of Cellular Physiology

      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Most cited references 51

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          In vitro scratch assay: a convenient and inexpensive method for analysis of cell migration in vitro.

          The in vitro scratch assay is an easy, low-cost and well-developed method to measure cell migration in vitro. The basic steps involve creating a "scratch" in a cell monolayer, capturing the images at the beginning and at regular intervals during cell migration to close the scratch, and comparing the images to quantify the migration rate of the cells. Compared to other methods, the in vitro scratch assay is particularly suitable for studies on the effects of cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions on cell migration, mimic cell migration during wound healing in vivo and are compatible with imaging of live cells during migration to monitor intracellular events if desired. Besides monitoring migration of homogenous cell populations, this method has also been adopted to measure migration of individual cells in the leading edge of the scratch. Not taking into account the time for transfection of cells, in vitro scratch assay per se usually takes from several hours to overnight.
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            Matrix metalloproteinases and tumor metastasis.

            Functions of individual matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) differentially expressed by tumor cells and stromal cells, are finely regulated by their spatial as well as temporal interactions with distinct cellular and extracellular components of the tumor microenvironment and also distant pre-metastatic sites. Certain aspects of MMP involvement in tumor metastasis such as tumor-induced angiogenesis, tumor invasion, and establishment of metastatic foci at the secondary site, have received extensive attention that resulted in an overwhelming amount of experimental and observational data in favor of critical roles of MMPs in these processes. In particular, dependency of tumor angiogenesis on the activity of MMPs, especially that of MMP-9, renders this step possibly the most effective target of synthetic MMP inhibitors. MMP functioning in other stages of metastasis, including the escape of individual tumor cells from the primary tumor, their intravasation, survival in circulation, and extravasation at the secondary site, have not yet received enough consideration, resulting in insufficient or controversial data. The major pieces of evidence that are most compelling and clearly determine the role and involvement of MMPs in the metastatic cascade are provided by molecular genetic studies employing knock-out or transgenic animals and tumor cell lines, modified to overexpress or downregulate a specific MMP. Findings from all of these studies implicate different functional mechanisms for both tumor and stromal MMPs during distinct steps of the metastatic cascade and indicate that MMPs can exhibit pro-metastatic as well as anti-metastatic roles depending on their nature and the experimental setting. This dual function of individual MMPs in metastasis has become a major focus of this review.
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              The FGF family: biology, pathophysiology and therapy.

              The family of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) regulates a plethora of developmental processes, including brain patterning, branching morphogenesis and limb development. Several mitogenic, cytoprotective and angiogenic therapeutic applications of FGFs are already being explored, and the recent discovery of the crucial roles of the endocrine-acting FGF19 subfamily in bile acid, glucose and phosphate homeostasis has sparked renewed interest in the pharmacological potential of this family. This Review discusses traditional applications of recombinant FGFs and small-molecule FGF receptor kinase inhibitors in the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular disease and their emerging potential in the treatment of metabolic syndrome and hypophosphataemic diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Cellular Physiology
                J. Cell. Physiol.
                Wiley-Blackwell
                00219541
                February 2015
                February 28 2015
                : 230
                : 2
                : 366-377
                10.1002/jcp.24717
                © 2015

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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