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      Comparative Genomics Analysis Provides New Insight Into Molecular Basis of Stomatal Movement in Kalanchoë fedtschenkoi

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          CO 2 uptake and water loss in plants are regulated by microscopic pores on the surface of leaves, called stomata. This enablement of gas exchange by the opening and closing of stomata is one of the most essential processes in plant photosynthesis and transpiration, affecting water-use efficiency (WUE) and thus drought susceptibility. In plant species with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis, diel stomatal movement pattern is inverted relative to C 3 and C 4 photosynthesis species, resulting in much higher WUE and drought tolerance. However, little is known about the molecular basis of stomatal movement in CAM species. The goal of this study is to identify candidate genes that could play a role in stomatal movement in an obligate CAM species, Kalanchoë fedtschenkoi. By way of a text-mining approach, proteins were identified in various plant species, spanning C 3, C 4, and CAM photosynthetic types, which are orthologous to proteins known to be involved in stomatal movement. A comparative analysis of diel time-course gene expression data was performed between K. fedtschenkoi and two C 3 species (i.e., Arabidopsis thaliana and Solanum lycopersicum) to identify differential gene expression between the dusk and dawn phases of the 24-h cycle. A rescheduled catalase gene known to be involved in stomatal movement was identified, suggesting a role for H 2O 2 in CAM-like stomatal movement. Overall, these results provide new insights into the molecular regulation of stomatal movement in CAM plants, facilitating genetic improvement of drought resistance in agricultural crops through manipulation of stomata-related genes.

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          Most cited references 60

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          Trimmomatic: a flexible trimmer for Illumina sequence data

          Motivation: Although many next-generation sequencing (NGS) read preprocessing tools already existed, we could not find any tool or combination of tools that met our requirements in terms of flexibility, correct handling of paired-end data and high performance. We have developed Trimmomatic as a more flexible and efficient preprocessing tool, which could correctly handle paired-end data. Results: The value of NGS read preprocessing is demonstrated for both reference-based and reference-free tasks. Trimmomatic is shown to produce output that is at least competitive with, and in many cases superior to, that produced by other tools, in all scenarios tested. Availability and implementation: Trimmomatic is licensed under GPL V3. It is cross-platform (Java 1.5+ required) and available at Contact: Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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            MAFFT Multiple Sequence Alignment Software Version 7: Improvements in Performance and Usability

            We report a major update of the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program. This version has several new features, including options for adding unaligned sequences into an existing alignment, adjustment of direction in nucleotide alignment, constrained alignment and parallel processing, which were implemented after the previous major update. This report shows actual examples to explain how these features work, alone and in combination. Some examples incorrectly aligned by MAFFT are also shown to clarify its limitations. We discuss how to avoid misalignments, and our ongoing efforts to overcome such limitations.
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              TopHat2: accurate alignment of transcriptomes in the presence of insertions, deletions and gene fusions

              TopHat is a popular spliced aligner for RNA-sequence (RNA-seq) experiments. In this paper, we describe TopHat2, which incorporates many significant enhancements to TopHat. TopHat2 can align reads of various lengths produced by the latest sequencing technologies, while allowing for variable-length indels with respect to the reference genome. In addition to de novo spliced alignment, TopHat2 can align reads across fusion breaks, which can occur after genomic translocations. TopHat2 combines the ability to identify novel splice sites with direct mapping to known transcripts, producing sensitive and accurate alignments, even for highly repetitive genomes or in the presence of pseudogenes. TopHat2 is available at

                Author and article information

                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                13 March 2019
                : 10
                1Department of Biology, Duke University , Durham, NC, United States
                2Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory , Oak Ridge, TN, United States
                3The Center for Bioenergy Innovation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory , Oak Ridge, TN, United States
                4The Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Education, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville , Knoxville, TN, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Dirk Walther, Max-Planck-Institut für Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, Germany

                Reviewed by: Caspar Christian Cedric Chater, The University of Sheffield, United Kingdom; Helenice Mercier, University of São Paulo, Brazil

                *Correspondence: Xiaohan Yang, yangx@

                This article was submitted to Plant Systems and Synthetic Biology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Copyright © 2019 Moseley, Tuskan and Yang.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 61, Pages: 11, Words: 0
                Plant Science
                Original Research


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