Concerns regarding adverse health effects of exposure to environmental pollutants among children are increasing. This subject area is particularly important in China because of environmental pollution problems associated with rapid development and a large population. The authors provide what is, to their knowledge, the first review in China of English- and Chinese-language literature regarding the current status of environmental exposures to children in China and the impact of these exposures on the health of children. Children in China are exposed to diverse environmental pollutants, including traditional pollutants such as lead and mercury and emerging pollutants such as phthalates and perfluorinated compounds. Incidence and prevalence of certain childhood diseases have increased in last decades. In China, a limited number of data on environmental exposure and children's health are available, and further high-quality studies are needed.