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      Marine top predators as climate and ecosystem sentinels

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          Tracking apex marine predator movements in a dynamic ocean.

          Pelagic marine predators face unprecedented challenges and uncertain futures. Overexploitation and climate variability impact the abundance and distribution of top predators in ocean ecosystems. Improved understanding of ecological patterns, evolutionary constraints and ecosystem function is critical for preventing extinctions, loss of biodiversity and disruption of ecosystem services. Recent advances in electronic tagging techniques have provided the capacity to observe the movements and long-distance migrations of animals in relation to ocean processes across a range of ecological scales. Tagging of Pacific Predators, a field programme of the Census of Marine Life, deployed 4,306 tags on 23 species in the North Pacific Ocean, resulting in a tracking data set of unprecedented scale and species diversity that covers 265,386 tracking days from 2000 to 2009. Here we report migration pathways, link ocean features to multispecies hotspots and illustrate niche partitioning within and among congener guilds. Our results indicate that the California Current large marine ecosystem and the North Pacific transition zone attract and retain a diverse assemblage of marine vertebrates. Within the California Current large marine ecosystem, several predator guilds seasonally undertake north-south migrations that may be driven by oceanic processes, species-specific thermal tolerances and shifts in prey distributions. We identify critical habitats across multinational boundaries and show that top predators exploit their environment in predictable ways, providing the foundation for spatial management of large marine ecosystems. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved
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            Biological Impacts of the 2013–2015 Warm-Water Anomaly in the Northeast Pacific: Winners, Losers, and the Future

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              Integrated Ecosystem Assessments: Developing the Scientific Basis for Ecosystem-Based Management of the Ocean

              Integrated ecosystem assessments challenge the broader scientific community to move beyond the important task of tallying insults to marine ecosystems to developing quantitative tools that can support the decisions national and regional resource managers must make.

                Author and article information

                Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
                Front Ecol Environ
                December 02 2019
                December 2019
                November 04 2019
                December 2019
                : 17
                : 10
                : 565-574
                [1 ]Southwest Fisheries Science CenterEnvironmental Research DivisionNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)MontereyCA
                [2 ]Institute of Marine ScienceUniversity of California–Santa Cruz Santa Cruz CA
                [3 ]NOAA Earth System Research LaboratoryPhysical Sciences Division Boulder CO
                [4 ]Hopkins Marine StationStanford University Pacific Grove CA
                [5 ]Global‐Change Ecology Research GroupUniversity of the Sunshine Coast Sippy Downs Australia
                [6 ]Farallon Institute Petaluma CA
                © 2019





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