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      New populations of two threatened species of Alsodes (Anura, Alsodidae) reveal the scarce biogeographic knowledge of the genus in the Andes of central Chile

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      Zoosystematics and Evolution

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          High Andean environments of central Chile (32°–38°S) are inhabited by several endemic species of the genus Alsodes. Two of them, A. pehuenche and A. hugoi, have geographic distributions restricted to their type locality and surroundings. The Chilean government classifies A. pehuenche as Critically Endangered (like the IUCN) and A. hugoi as Vulnerable. In this study we report 16 new localities of Alsodes, corresponding to first order streams, located in the Andes of Chile between 35°58’ and 36°32’S (1800–2470 m). In some of these sites, adults and juveniles morphologically similar to A. pehuenche and A. hugoi were observed, as well as specimens of Alsodes that could not be identified by their external morphology. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis with mitochondrial sequences (cytochrome b) was performed to identify the new populations to species level. All populations around 36°S belong to A. pehuenche, while most of those located south of that area would be A. hugoi. The exception is Cajón de Plaza (36°23’S), where specimens with sequences of A. hugoi or A. pehuenche coexist, whose taxonomic status could not be determined. These findings imply not only a westward range extension of A. pehuenche in Chile of about 14.5 km and of A. hugoi about 100 km southward, but also that practically all the first order streams of the Andes of central Chile would be inhabited by populations of Alsodes. Both results demonstrate the scarce biogeographic knowledge of the genus in the Andes, which has important implications for its conservation at local and species levels.

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          DAMBE6: New Tools for Microbial Genomics, Phylogenetics, and Molecular Evolution

           Xuhua Xia (2017)
          Abstract DAMBE is a comprehensive software workbench for data analysis in molecular biology, phylogenetics, and evolution. Several important new functions have been added since version 5 of DAMBE: 1) comprehensive genomic profiling of translation initiation efficiency of different genes in different prokaryotic species, 2) a new index of translation elongation (ITE) that takes into account both tRNA-mediated selection and background mutation on codon–anticodon adaptation, 3) a new and accurate phylogenetic approach based on pairwise alignment only, which is useful for highly divergent sequences from which a reliable multiple sequence alignment is difficult to obtain. Many other functions have been updated and improved including PWM for motif characterization, Gibbs sampler for de novo motif discovery, hidden Markov models for protein secondary structure prediction, self-organizing map for nonlinear clustering of transcriptomic data, comprehensive sequence alignment, and phylogenetic functions. DAMBE features a graphic, user-friendly and intuitive interface, and is freely available from http://dambe.bio.uottawa.ca.
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            Phylogenetic relationships of a Patagonian frog radiation, theAlsodes + Eupsophusclade (Anura: Alsodidae), with comments on the supposed paraphyly ofEupsophus

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              Anesthetic Considerations for Amphibians

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Zoosystematics and Evolution
                ZSE
                Pensoft Publishers
                1860-0743
                1435-1935
                July 17 2018
                July 17 2018
                : 94
                : 2
                : 349-359
                Article
                10.3897/zse.94.25189
                © 2018

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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