By an immunoperoxidase (PAP) technique, ACTH- and prolactin-like substances were detected in neurons of several hypothalamic nuclei in young and adult rats. Neurons in the arcuate and ventromedial nuclei were simultaneously both ACTH-like and PRL-like positive. Labelled fibres were followed to their fields of projections. Intensity of labelling was not influenced by experimental procedures known to change PRL and ACTH content of the pituitary. Colchicine enhanced labelling of perikarya while lowering that of fibres. The results support neuronal synthesis of hormonal ACTH and PRL related molecules and their involvement in the control of autonomic nerve functions.