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      Hypoxia-inducible factor 1a induces phenotype switch of human aortic vascular smooth muscle cell through PI3K/AKT/AEG-1 signaling

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          To date, hypoxia-inducible factor 1a (HIF-1a) and astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) have been involved in the proliferation, migration and morphological changes of vascular smooth muscle cells. However, the potential relationship of HIF-1a-AEG-1 pathway in human aortic smooth muscle cell (HASMC) has not been reported. In the present study, in-vitro assays were utilized to explore the potential impact of HIF-1a-AEG-1 signaling on HASMC phenotype. Here, we found that HIF-1a expression was up-regulated in the media of thoracic aortic dissection tissues as compared with normal aortic tissues, and was associated with increased apoptotic SMCs and decreased AEG-1 expression. Mechanically, hypoxia promoted the expression of HIF-1a by PI3K-AKT pathway in HASMCs; HIF-1a further suppressed the expressions of AEG-1, a-SMA and SM22a, and promoted osteopontin (OPN) expression. Functionally, HIF-1a inhibited the proliferation and migration of HASMCs. However, si-HIF-1a or Akt inhibitor abrogated HIF-1a-mediated related expressions and biological effects above. In conclusion, HIF-1a induces HASMC phenotype switch, and closely related to PI3K/AKT and AEG-1 signaling, which may provide new avenues for the prevention and treatment of aortic dissection diseases.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Down-regulation of miR-23b induces phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo.

          Phenotypic switch of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of different vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after coronary intervention. MicroRNAs have been identified as key regulators of VSMC biology. The miR-23b is highly expressed in VSMCs and it is involved in differentiation, proliferation, and migration of several non-vascular cell types. However, the role of miR-23b in vascular disease is currently unknown. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of miR-23b on VSMC phenotypic switch in vitro and after vascular injury in vivo.
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            The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway regulates the replicative senescence of human VSMCs.

            Replicative senescence of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to aging as well as age-related cardiovascular diseases. Rapamycin can delay the onset of aging-related diseases via inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), but its role in vascular aging remains elusive. This study investigated the involvement of mTOR signaling in replicative senescence of VSMCs. Replicative senescence was induced by the extended passages of human VSMCs. Aging-related cell morphology was observed. The aging-related proteins and enzyme activity, and oxidative stress were measured. Significant increase in SA-β-gal activity and protein expression, p53 and p16 protein expression, proliferation index (PI), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, and significant decrease in telomerase activity was observed in aging VSMCs compared to young cells. Significant activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling was observed in aging cells but not young cells. Pretreatment of VSMCs with PI3K inhibitor blocked while PI3K activator increased the changes of the above replicative senescence-related parameters in VSMCs. Rapamycin and silencing of mTOR expression inhibited replicative senescence in VSMCs through decreasing the level of p-mTOR Ser2448, p-mTOR Thr2446, and S6K1 phosphorylation. This study for the first time demonstrated that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/S6K1 signal pathway plays an important role in regulating replicative senescence of human VSMCs.
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              Inward rectifier potassium (Kir2.1) channels as end-stage boosters of endothelium-dependent vasodilators.

              Increase in endothelial cell (EC) calcium activates calcium-sensitive intermediate and small conductance potassium (IK and SK) channels, thereby causing hyperpolarization and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Endothelial cells express inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels, but their role in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation is not clear. In the mesenteric arteries, only ECs, but not smooth muscle cells, displayed Kir currents that were predominantly mediated by the Kir2.1 isoform. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatations in response to muscarinic receptor, TRPV4 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 4) channel and IK/SK channel agonists were highly attenuated by Kir channel inhibitors and by Kir2.1 channel knockdown. These results point to EC Kir channels as amplifiers of vasodilatation in response to increases in EC calcium and IK/SK channel activation and suggest that EC Kir channels could be targeted to treat endothelial dysfunction, which is a hallmark of vascular disorders.

                Author and article information

                Impact Journals LLC
                16 May 2017
                22 March 2017
                : 8
                : 20
                : 33343-33352
                1 Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Xinyan Pang, pangxinyanmd@
                Copyright: © 2017 Liu et al.

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY), which permits unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.

                Research Paper

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

                hif-1a, hasmc, pi3k/akt/aeg-1


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