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      Three Release Rates of Dicyphus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) for Management of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Greenhouse Tomato

      research-article
      1 , * , 2
      Insects
      MDPI
      sweetpotato whitefly, biological control, protected agriculture, zoophytophagous mirids

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          Abstract

          The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is a pest of greenhouse-grown tomato. Restrictions on insecticides in enclosed structures and the presence of commercial pollinators limit the options for the chemical control of whiteflies in greenhouses, increasing the importance of biological controls. Dicyphus hesperus is a zoophytophagous mirid predator native to North America. Three release rates of D. hesperus were evaluated on greenhouse tomato for control of the sweetpotato whitefly. The release rates were one, two or three adult D. hesperus per tomato plant each week for three weeks in cages containing four tomato plants and one mullein banker plant. There were fewer whitefly eggs in cages receiving predators than untreated cages one week after the third release, and fewer whitefly nymphs in cages receiving predators two weeks after the third release. There were no statistical differences in whitefly eggs or nymphs among predator release treatments. The highest release rate resulted in a 60% reduction in whitefly nymphs. Forty-two days after the first predator releases, there were no differences among release treatments in the number of D. hesperus. Our results indicate that D. hesperus can contribute management of B. tabaci on greenhouse tomato, but that it may be insufficient as a sole strategy.

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          Plant viruses transmitted by whiteflies

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            Plant damage to vegetable crops by zoophytophagous mirid predators

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              Mirid (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) specialists of sticky plants: adaptations, interactions, and ecological implications.

              Sticky plants-those having glandular trichomes (hairs) that produce adhesive, viscous exudates-can impede the movement of, and entrap, generalist insects. Disparate arthropod groups have adapted to these widespread and taxonomically diverse plants, yet their interactions with glandular hosts rarely are incorporated into broad ecological theory. Ecologists and entomologists might be unaware of even well-documented examples of insects that are sticky-plant specialists. The hemipteran family Miridae (more specifically, the omnivorous Dicyphini: Dicyphina) is the best-known group of arthropods that specializes on sticky plants. In the first synthesis of relationships with glandular plants for any insect family, we review mirid interactions with sticky hosts, including their adaptations (behavioral, morphological, and physiological) and mutualisms with carnivorous plants, and the ecological and agricultural implications of mirid-sticky plant systems. We propose that mirid research applies generally to tritrophic interactions on trichome-defended plants, enhances an understanding of insect-plant interactions, and provides information useful in managing crop pests.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Insects
                Insects
                insects
                Insects
                MDPI
                2075-4450
                19 July 2019
                July 2019
                : 10
                : 7
                : 213
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Wimauma, FL 33598, USA
                [2 ]USDA-ARS, 5230 Konnowac Pass Road, Wapato, WA 98951, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: hughasmith@ 123456ufl.edu ; Tel.: +813-419-6588
                Article
                insects-10-00213
                10.3390/insects10070213
                6681358
                31331037
                2ce0a6c7-f61f-41a1-82d2-fb58c4c0d11e
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 11 June 2019
                : 16 July 2019
                Categories
                Article

                sweetpotato whitefly,biological control,protected agriculture,zoophytophagous mirids

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