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      Structural Characterization of the Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin Dalteparin by Combining Different Analytical Strategies

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          A number of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) products are available for clinical use and although all share a similar mechanism of action, they are classified as distinct drugs because of the different depolymerisation processes of the native heparin resulting in substantial pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics differences. While enoxaparin has been extensively investigated, little information is available regarding the LMWH dalteparin. The present study is focused on the detailed structural characterization of Fragmin ® by LC-MS and NMR applied both to the whole drug and to its enzymatic products. For a more in-depth approach, size homogeneous octasaccharide and decasaccharide components together with their fractions endowed with high or no affinity toward antithrombin were also isolated and their structural profiles characterized. The combination of different analytical strategies here described represents a useful tool for the assessment of batch-to-batch structural variability and for comparative evaluation of structural features of biosimilar products.

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          The determination of hydroxyproline in urine hydrolysate

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            Synthesis of 3-O-Sulfated Oligosaccharides to Understand the Relationship between Structures and Functions of Heparan Sulfate

            The sulfation at the 3-OH position of glucosamine is an important modification in forming structural domains for heparan sulfate to enable its biological functions. Seven 3- O -sulfotransferase isoforms in the human genome are involved in the biosynthesis of 3- O -sulfated heparan sulfate. As a rare modification present in heparan sulfate, the availability of 3- O -sulfated oligosaccharides is very limited. Here, we report the use of a chemoenzymatic synthetic approach to synthesize six 3- O -sulfated oligosaccharides, including three hexasaccharides and three octasaccharides. The synthesis was achieved by rearranging the enzymatic modification sequence to accommodate the substrate specificity of 3- O -sulfotransferase 3. We studied the impact of 3- O -sulfation on the conformation of the pyranose ring of 2- O -sulfated iduronic acid using NMR, and on the correlation between ring conformation and anticoagulant activity. We identified a novel octasaccharide that interacts with antithrombin and displays anti factor Xa activity. Interestingly, the octasaccharide displays a faster clearance rate than fondaparinux, an FDA approved pentasaccharide drug, in a rat model, making this octasaccharide a potential short acting anticoagulant drug candidate that could reduce bleeding risk. Having access to a set of critically important 3- O -sulfated oligosaccharides offers the potential to develop new heparan sulfate-based therapeutics.
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              Structural features of low-molecular-weight heparins affecting their affinity to antithrombin.

              As part of a more extensive investigation on structural features of different low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) that can affect their biological activities, Enoxaparin, Tinzaparin and Dalteparin were characterised with regards to the distribution of different chain length oligosaccharides as determined by size-exclusion (SE) chromatography, as well as their structure as defined by 2D-NMR spectra (HSQC). The three LMWHs were also fractionated into high affinity (HA) and no affinity (NA) pools with regards to their ability to bind antithrombin (AT). The HA fractions were further subfractionated and characterised. For the parent LMWHs and selected fractions, molecular weight parameters were measured using a SE chromatographic system with a triple detector (TDA) to obtain absolute molecular weights. The SE chromatograms clearly indicate that Enoxaparin is consistently richer in shorter oligosaccharides than Tinzaparin and Dalteparin. Besides providing the content of terminal groups and individual glucosamine and uronic acid residues with different sulfate substituents, the HSQC-NMR spectra permitted us to evaluate and correlate the content of the pentasaccharide, AT-binding sequence A-G-A*-I-A (AT-bs) through quantification of signals of the disaccharide sequence G-A*. Whereas the percent content of HA species is approximately the same for the three LMWHs, substantial differences were observed for the chain distribution of AT-bs as a function of length, with the AT-bs being preferentially contained in the longest chains of each LMWH. The above information will be useful in establishing structure-activity relationships currently under way. This study is therefore critical for establishing correlations between structural features of LMWHs and their AT-mediated anticoagulant activity.

                Author and article information

                Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
                24 June 2017
                July 2017
                : 22
                : 7
                [1 ]Istituto di Ricerche Chimiche e Biochimiche G. Ronzoni, 20133 Milan, Italy; urso@ 123456ronzoni.it (E.U.); guerrini@ 123456ronzoni.it (M.G.); pdewit@ 123456nl.aspenpharma.com (P.d.W.); torri@ 123456ronzoni.it (G.T.); naggi@ 123456ronzoni.it (A.N.)
                [2 ]Department of Cell and Applied Biology, Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 HP Nijmegen, Netherlands
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: bisio@ 123456ronzoni.it ; Tel.: +39-02-7064-1630

                Current address: Aspen Oss B.V., Kloosterstraat 6, 5349 AB Oss, Netherlands.

                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).



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