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      Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy employing pilot line manufactured custom tuning forks

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          Highlights

          • Pilot line manufactured custom quartz tuning forks (QTFs) with a resonance frequency of 28 kHz and a Q value of >30, 000 in a vacuum and ∼ 7500 in the air, were designed.

          • The pilot line was able to produce hundreds of custom QTFs with small frequency shift < 10 ppm.

          • An Au film were deposited on both sides of QTF to enhance the piezoelectric charge collection efficiency and reduce the environmental electromagnetic noise.

          • The laser focus position and modulation depth were optimized to enhance the laser excitation efficiency.

          • A normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA) coefficient of 1.7 × 10 −8 cm −1 W Hz −1/2 was achieved.

          Abstract

          Pilot line manufactured custom quartz tuning forks (QTFs) with a resonance frequency of 28 kHz and a Q value of >30, 000 in a vacuum and ∼ 7500 in the air, were designed and produced for trace gas sensing based on quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS). The pilot line was able to produce hundreds of low-frequency custom QTFs with small frequency shift < 10 ppm, benefiting the detecting of molecules with slow vibrational-translational (V-T) relaxation rates. An Au film with a thickness of 600 nm were deposited on both sides of QTF to enhance the piezoelectric charge collection efficiency and reduce the environmental electromagnetic noise. The laser focus position and modulation depth were optimized. With an integration time of 84 s, a normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA) coefficient of 1.7 × 10 −8 cm -1∙W∙Hz -1/2 was achieved which is ∼10 times higher than a commercially available QTF with a resonance frequency of 32 kHz.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy.

          A new approach to detecting a weak photoacoustic signal in a gas medium is described. Instead of a gas-filled resonant acoustic cavity, the sound energy is accumulated in a high- Q crystal element. Feasibility experiments utilizing a quartz-watch tuning fork demonstrate a sensitivity of 1.2x10(-7) cm(-1) W/ radicalHz . Potential further developments and applications of this technique are discussed.
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            Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy: A Review

            A detailed review on the development of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensors (QEPAS) for the sensitive and selective quantification of molecular trace gas species with resolved spectroscopic features is reported. The basis of the QEPAS technique, the technology available to support this field in terms of key components, such as light sources and quartz-tuning forks and the recent developments in detection methods and performance limitations will be discussed. Furthermore, different experimental QEPAS methods such as: on-beam and off-beam QEPAS, quartz-enhanced evanescent wave photoacoustic detection, modulation-cancellation approach and mid-IR single mode fiber-coupled sensor systems will be reviewed and analysed. A QEPAS sensor operating in the THz range, employing a custom-made quartz-tuning fork and a THz quantum cascade laser will be also described. Finally, we evaluated data reported during the past decade and draw relevant and useful conclusions from this analysis.
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              QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Photoacoustics
                Photoacoustics
                Photoacoustics
                Elsevier
                2213-5979
                26 December 2019
                March 2020
                26 December 2019
                : 17
                Affiliations
                [a ]Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Fiber Sensing and Communications, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China
                [b ]Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information and Sensing Technologies of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Department of Optoelectronic Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China
                [c ]Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center on Visible Light Communication and the Guangzhou Municipal Key Laboratory of Engineering Technology on Visible Light Communication, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China
                [d ]School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan, 528000, China
                [e ]Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
                [f ]Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Fiber Sensing and Communications, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China. kensomyu@ 123456gmail.com jianhuiyu@ 123456jnu.edu.cn
                Article
                S2213-5979(19)30081-3 100158
                10.1016/j.pacs.2019.100158
                6961718
                © 2020 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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                Research Article

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