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      Phenotyping Renal Leukocyte Subsets by Four-Color Flow Cytometry: Characterization of Chemokine Receptor Expression

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          To investigate mechanisms of cell-mediated injury in renal inflammatory disease it is critical to determine the surface phenotype of infiltrating renal leukocyte subsets. However, the cell-specific expression of many leukocyte receptors is difficult to characterize in vivo. Here, we report a protocol based on flow cytometry that allows simultaneous characterization of surface receptor expression on different subsets of infiltrating renal leukocytes. The described technique combines an adapted method to prepare single cell suspensions from whole kidneys with subsequent four-color flow cytometry. We recently applied this technique to determine the differential expression of murine chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR5 on infiltrating renal leukocyte subsets. In this article, we summarize our current findings on the validity of the method as compared with immunohistology and in situ hybridization in two murine models of nonimmune (obstructive nephropathy) and immune-mediated (lupus nephritis) inflammatory renal disease. Flow cytometry analysis revealed an accumulation of CCR5-, but not CCR2-positive lymphocytes in inflamed kidneys, compared to the peripheral blood. Particularly renal CD8<sup>+</sup> cells expressed CCR5 (79% in obstructed kidneys, 90% in lupus nephritis). In both models, infiltrating renal macrophages were positive for CCR2 and CCR5. These data corresponded to immunohistological and in situ hybridization results. They demonstrate that flow cytometric analysis of single cell suspensions prepared from inflamed kidneys is a rapid and reliable technique to characterize and quantify surface receptor expression on infiltrating renal leukocyte subsets.

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          Defects in Macrophage Recruitment and Host Defense in Mice Lacking the CCR2 Chemokine Receptor

          Chemokines are a structurally related family of cytokines that are important for leukocyte trafficking. The C-C chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a potent monocyte activator in vitro and has been associated with monocytic infiltration in several inflammatory diseases. One C-C chemokine receptor, CCR2, has been identified that mediates in vitro responses to MCP-1 and its close structural homologues. CCR2 has also recently been demonstrated to be a fusion cofactor for several HIV isolates. To investigate the normal physiological function of CCR2, we generated mice with a targeted disruption of the ccr2 gene. Mice deficient for CCR2 developed normally and had no hematopoietic abnormalities. However, ccr2 −/− mice failed to recruit macrophages in an experimental peritoneal inflammation model. In addition, these mice were unable to clear infection by the intracellular bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes. These results suggest that CCR2 has a nonredundant role as a major mediator of macrophage recruitment and host defense against bacterial pathogens and that MCP-1 and other CCR2 ligands are effectors of those functions.
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            Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1–Dependent Leukocytic Infiltrates Are Responsible for Autoimmune Disease in Mrl-Faslpr Mice

            Infiltrating leukocytes may be responsible for autoimmune disease. We hypothesized that the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 recruits macrophages and T cells into tissues that, in turn, are required for autoimmune disease. Using the MRL-Faslpr strain with spontaneous, fatal autoimmune disease, we constructed MCP-1–deficient MRL-Faslpr mice. In MCP-1–intact MRL-Faslpr mice, macrophages and T cells accumulate at sites (kidney tubules, glomeruli, pulmonary bronchioli, lymph nodes) in proportion to MCP-1 expression. Deleting MCP-1 dramatically reduces macrophage and T cell recruitment but not proliferation, protects from kidney, lung, skin, and lymph node pathology, reduces proteinuria, and prolongs survival. Notably, serum immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes and kidney Ig/C3 deposits are not diminished in MCP-1–deficient MRL-Faslpr mice, highlighting the requirement for MCP-1–dependent leukocyte recruitment to initiate autoimmune disease. However, MCP-1–deficient mice are not completely protected from leukocytic invasion. T cells surrounding vessels with meager MCP-1 expression remain. In addition, downstream effector cytokines/chemokines are decreased in MCP-1–deficient mice, perhaps reflecting a reduction of cytokine-expressing leukocytes. Thus, MCP-1 promotes MRL-Faslpr autoimmune disease through macrophage and T cell recruitment, amplified by increasing local cytokines/chemokines. We suggest that MCP-1 is a principal therapeutic target with which to combat autoimmune diseases.
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              Severe reduction in leukocyte adhesion and monocyte extravasation in mice deficient in CC chemokine receptor 2


                Author and article information

                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                February 2003
                17 November 2004
                : 93
                : 2
                : e63-e71
                Nephrologisches Zentrum, Medizinische Poliklinik, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany
                68517 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2003;93:e63–e71
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, References: 35, Pages: 1
                Self URI (application/pdf):
                Technical Report

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Inflammation, CCR5, Antibody, FACS, CCR2


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