Pietro Scicchitano 1 , Francesca Cortese 1 , Gabriella Ricci 1 , Santa Carbonara 1 , Michele Moncelli 1 , Massimo Iacoviello 1 , Annagrazia Cecere 1 , Michele Gesualdo 1 , Annapaola Zito 1 , Pasquale Caldarola 2 , Domenico Scrutinio 3 , Rocco Lagioia 3 , Graziano Riccioni 4 , Marco Matteo Ciccone 1
03 June 2014
Elevated heart rate could negatively influence cardiovascular risk in the general population. It can induce and promote the atherosclerotic process by means of several mechanisms involving endothelial shear stress and biochemical activities. Furthermore, elevated heart rate can directly increase heart ischemic conditions because of its skill in unbalancing demand/supply of oxygen and decreasing the diastolic period. Thus, many pharmacological treatments have been proposed in order to reduce heart rate and ameliorate the cardiovascular risk profile of individuals, especially those suffering from coronary artery diseases (CAD) and chronic heart failure (CHF). Ivabradine is the first pure heart rate reductive drug approved and currently used in humans, created in order to selectively reduce sinus node function and to overcome the many side effects of similar pharmacological tools (ie, β-blockers or calcium channel antagonists). The aim of our review is to evaluate the role and the safety of this molecule on CAD and CHF therapeutic strategies.