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      NAD+ levels and glucose uptake of cultured human epidermal cells exposed to sulfur mustard.

      Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology

      Adult, Cells, Cultured, Epidermis, drug effects, Glucose, metabolism, Humans, Mustard Compounds, toxicity, Mustard Gas, NAD, analysis, Niacin, pharmacology, Niacinamide, Skin

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          In cultured human epidermal cells exposure to the vesicant sulfur mustard (HD) causes a decrease of the NAD+ content, which depends on the dose and the time period between exposure to HD and NAD+ measurement. Presumably, this NAD+ loss is due to activation of the enzyme NAD:protein ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) and may lead to glycolysis inhibition, disturbance of energy metabolism, and eventually cell death. Since prevention of this NAD+ depletion could lead to cell survival, HD-exposed cultures have been incubated with nicotinamide, a precursor of NAD+ and an inhibitor of ADPRT. Although a reduction in NAD+ levels of the cultures can be prevented, the uptake of glucose, which was taken as a measure for cellular viability, appears to be inhibited in cultures in which the NAD+ levels are at the 100% level at 4 hr after exposure. Therefore, prophylactic or therapeutic measures that are focused on maintenance of NAD+ levels in order to preserve energy supplies do not protect human epidermal cells in culture that have been exposed to HD. These experiments indicate that mechanisms other than NAD+ depletion may play an important role in HD-induced cell injury in human skin.

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